|W A T E R I N T A K E
Juli – August – September
SIWI – 2016 World Water Week
28 August – 2 September, 2016 in Stockholm
… is the annual focal point for the globe’s water issues … This year, the theme is Water for Sustainable Growth … In 2015, over 3,300 individuals and close to 300 convening organizations from 130 countries participated in the Week. Experts, practitioners, decision-makers, business innovators and young professionals from a range of sectors and countries come to Stockholm to network, exchange ideas, foster new thinking and develop solutions to the most pressing water-related challenges of today. We believe water is key to our future prosperity, and that together, we can achieve a water wise world …
The Water Report 2016 – including highly current issues of water and migration
17 August 2016 … takes on the highly current, and sometimes parallel, issues of water and migration. While we are witnessing some of the largest refugee flows since the Second World War, water crises are highlighted as one of the most pressing global challenges … 2015 was a year of big decisions. The time has come for implementation. SIWI and The Water Report aims to follow, on an annual basis, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals – the Water Goal (SDG 6) and the other water-related SDGs – as well as the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement … Water is a cross-cutting resource. Access to reliable and safe freshwater is essential for human health, food security, sustainable economic development, social progress and sound ecosystems. Water thus has the potential to act as a connector between policy areas, economic sectors, and nations. In a world of growing demand for freshwater and increasing climate induced and water related hazards, integrating wise water resource management throughout the 2030 and climate agendas will be decisive for the success of their delivery … managing freshwater, and making effective use of its full potential, will be decisive for the possibility to achieve the 2030 Agenda as well as efficiently address the climate change challenge … High time to think deeper about water. The global challenges of both demand and supply of water is mounting. Growing populations and economies require and pollute increasing volumes of freshwater. At the same time, the availability of water is in increasing peril from climate change-induced extreme weather. It is clear that we will need to invest more in water security, but we also urgently need to consider how we invest the water at our disposal in our economies and societies. We need to start planning for our future from a water perspective …
2016 UN World Water Development Report, Water and Jobs
22 March 2016 Three out of four of the jobs worldwide are water-dependent. In fact, water shortages and lack of access may limit economic growth in the years to come … From its collection, through various uses, to its ultimate return to the natural environment, water is a key factor in the development of job opportunities either directly related to its management (supply, infrastructure, wastewater treatment, etc.) or in economic sectors that are heavily water-dependent such as agriculture, fishing, power, industry and health. Furthermore, good access to drinking water and sanitation promotes an educated and healthy workforce, which constitutes an essential factor for sustained economic growth. In its analysis of the economic impact of access to water, the report cites numerous studies that show a positive correlation between investments in the water sector and economic growth. It also highlights the key role of water in the transition to a green economy …
2016 World Water Week in den Medien
Ende der World Water Week: Wasser spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Implementierung der 2030 Agenda für die nachhaltige Entwicklung
03.09.2016 Die World Water Week ging … mit dem Schluss zu Ende, dass Wasser als Mittel für eine erfolgreiche Implementierung der gesamten 2030 Agenda sowie des Pariser Klimaabkommens angesehen werden muss … Die Implementierung der Ziele nachhaltiger Entwicklung (SDGs Sustainable Development Goals), einschließlich des Ziels "Wasser" (Ziel 6), war eines der wichtigsten Themen, die von hochrangigen Entscheidungsträgern, Fachkräften aus den Bereichen Entwicklung und Wasser, Forschern, Vertretern der Zivilgesellschaft und aus dem privaten Sektor diskutiert wurden … Im Verlauf der Woche lag der Fokus auf der Implementierung und auf Maßnahmen – insbesondere auf lokaler und Stadtebene -, womit der Übergang von globalen Diskussionen und Verhandlungen hin zu einer Annahme der SDGs und des Pariser Klimaabkommens 2015 markiert wird …
Cardinal Turkson gives keynote address at World Water Week 2016
29/08/2016 … president of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, gave a keynote address for World Water Week … in which he examined the links between faith and development in the search to make drinkable water accessible to all people … “Motivation to virtue is the valuable contribution that religious faith and spiritual practices can and must bring to development, through their spiritual leaders and the multitudes of believers and adherents” … Educate youth to embrace solidarity, altruism, and responsibility. The latter of these virtues will help them to be honest administrators and politicians. In teaching Sacred Scriptures and spiritual traditions, show that water is a precious and even a divine element. It is used extensively in liturgy. This should inspire us to use water with respect and gratitude, reclaim polluted water sources, and understand that water is not a mere commodity. Organize interreligious campaigns for cleaning rivers or lakes, in order to foster mutual respect, peace and friendship among different groups. Reaffirm human dignity and the common good of the whole human family in order to promote a wise hierarchy of priorities for the use of water, especially where there are multiple and potentially competing demands for water …
Danke für diesen Hinweis nach Berlin-Mitte! J.B.
The other water crisis: one million jobs are missing, yearly
12 September 2016 Experts are sounding the alarm over a growing jobs crisis in the global water sector. While there is much talk about the increasing water scarcity that will affect 1.8 billion people by 2025, and the need to support Goal Six of the Sustainable Development Goals which calls for the “availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”, there is another issue: there aren’t enough skilled workers to keep the water sector running efficiently … According to UN Water, 1.5 billion people – more than 40 per cent of the world’s total active workforce – work in water-related sectors, while nearly all jobs are water dependent. Speaking at the at the World Water Week conference … Ger Bergkemp, executive director of the International Water Association (IWA), said the number of water professionals is failing to keep pace with the world’s ever increasing water needs. “The global population of seven billion needs waste water facilities, translating to approximately 7,000 people requiring new waste water facilities on daily basis. This means that one million new professionals are needed yearly to bridge the gap” … Jobs in the sector range from engineers to microbiologists to plumbers, waste management professionals and software developers … One of the reasons for the deficit is uncompetitive salaries and a lack of opportunities … The impact of this capacity shortfall is wide-ranging, although primarily it affects the sustainable provision of water and sanitation service delivery globally … The experts, however, agree unanimously that the privatisation of the water sector is not a panacea to its human resources challenge as it leads to a deterioration in service delivery, higher water prices, corruption and environmental problems … “Private firms in the water sector could do better in wages but unfortunately, they opt for profit maximisation. Whenever they take up public utilities, they usually sack all workers and reemploy 30 per cent of the former staff,” he observes …
Weltwasserwoche in Stockholm – "Es fehlt nicht an Wasser, es fehlt an Geld"
Stand: 28.08.2016 … Jürgen Leist [Leibniz Universität Hannover]: Da muss ich erst mal korrigieren. Wasser wird immer knapper, das höre ich immerzu. Die Erde hat seit Jahrmillionen die gleiche Wassermenge. Natürlich ist das zu 97 Prozent Salzwasser, aber die Grenzen sind fließend: Das, was heute bei uns an Regen herunterkommt, war drei Tage vorher noch im Atlantik. Es findet ein beständiger Kreislauf statt. Wenn sich, was sich ja abzeichnet, die Welt erwärmt, dann wird sich das sogar noch beschleunigen. In die Atmosphäre kommt noch mehr Wasser. Es kann natürlich dazu führen, dass in einigen Regionen verfügbares Wasser in der Nähe von großen Metropolen knapper wird …
Achieving universal access to water and sanitation by 2030 – how can blended finance help?
08/29/2016 … With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals on water and sanitation (SDG 6), countries of the world committed themselves to change this situation by achieving universal access to safe water and sanitation while addressing issues of water quality and scarcity to balance the needs of households, agriculture, industry, energy, and the environment over the next 15 years. A substantial increase in sector financing will be necessary to achieve SDG 6. Recent estimates by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) indicate that the present value of the additional investment in the water and sanitation sector alone needed through 2030 will exceed US$1.7 trillion. Existing funding falls far short of this amount; countries may have to increase their water and sanitation investments by up to four times in order to meet the SDGs … At present, most water sector actors in developing countries rely on government lending and concessional financing from national, bilateral or multilateral development banks (MDBs) to mobilize financing for capital investment. These financial sources alone will not be sufficient to finance investments on the scale that is called for by the SDGs. It is therefore essential to mobilize up-front financing from commercial sources as well. National governments and donors must use their funds in a catalytic manner, as part of broader financing strategies that mobilize funding from sector efficiency gains, tariffs, domestic taxes, and transfers to crowd in domestic commercial finance … OECD refers to blended finance as ‘the strategic use of development finance and philanthropic funds to mobilize private capital flows to emerging and frontier markets’ … Commercial finance usually brings requirements for greater investment discipline and transparency, which in turn could support improved efficiency in the sector, an objective for most water sector reform efforts around the world …
«Der Kampf ums Wasser wird die Kriege der Zukunft prägen» – Die UNO muss Konflikte verhüten und nicht bloss verwalten
[Interview mit Irina Bokova, Generaldirektorin der UNESCO]
17.09.2016 … Ich bin überzeugt, dass die Stärkung der «soft power», die Stärkung von Bildungsbemühungen und kultureller Identität, von grosser Wichtigkeit bei der Konfliktbewältigung ist. Zehn der siebzehn Ziele der UNO-Agenda für nachhaltige Entwicklung betreffen die Arbeit der Unesco. Es geht um die Entwicklung der Wissenschaft, den Schutz der Ozeane, die Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter, den Zugang zu sauberem Wasser, den Erhalt der Biodiversität und um Bildung. Das hat mich motiviert, mich als UNO-Generalsekretärin zu bewerben … In vielen Teilen der Welt schwinden die Ressourcen und das Wasser wird knapp. Der Kampf ums Wasser wird die Kriege der Zukunft zunehmend prägen. Es braucht eine Art Alarmsystem für drohende Konflikte. Ich sprach jüngst im Sahel in verschiedenen Ländern über Wassermangel, Armut und Boko Haram. Es gibt keine einfachen Antworten auf die Frage nach den Ursachen dieser Herausforderungen. Aber die UNO sollte ihren Fokus darauf legen, das Konfliktpotenzial in solchen Ländern zu minimieren …
Water, Energy, Food – Increasingly, Everything Is Connected
Sep 15, 2016 People often think of scientists as solitary types, working alone in our labs, focused on a narrow topic. But if that was ever true, it’s not now. Scientific discovery and creating new technologies don’t fit in a box. That’s certainly the case with questions involving water and energy, and the so-called water-energy nexus has gained attention from both the government and from researchers over the past few years. The two intersect like this: Producing clean water requires energy – to treat the water, to distribute the water and so on – while it takes water to produce energy, from generating electricity to blasting chemicals and sand into shale rock to extract oil and natural gas. Water is a key component of the cooling process in utility plants powered by fossil fuels, and it generates electricity directly in the case of hydroelectricity. Drought can affect power plants by limiting water availability. Similarly, water treatment plants can be shut down when a storm knocks out the power supply … The United Nations reports that agriculture accounts for 70 percent of global freshwater use. Food production and transportation consumes about 30 percent of global energy use. As the demand for food increases to meet projected population growth, it will require both more water and more energy. It doesn’t stop there, however. Runoff from agricultural operations can lead to pollution, requiring the water to be treated. The treatment requires energy. But agriculture doesn’t just consume water and energy – crops and agricultural waste are used to produce biofuels … There’s no place to get off the wheel. It goes in so many directions, and if we want to manage our resources sustainably, we have to pay attention.
How to Deal with Poor Water Quality Worldwide
September 6, 2016 The first step is to quantify the risks with both global and country-specific maps of where and what the hazards are … The global population has reached 7 billion, with more than 50 percent living within 150 km of a coastline, major lake or river system. Half of the world lacks any wastewater infrastructure, and other parts of the developed regions of the world (i.e. USA) are in desperate need of restoration. Beyond humans the numbers of cattle, sheep, pigs and chickens are estimated at 1.4, 1, 0.9 and 21 billion, respectively. On average, animals and humans generate 61.7 and 10.1 million metric tons of excreta per day … All of this fecal waste is entering waterways and impacting the designated uses including for recreating and drinking. While what we do on the land is the source of these pathogens, climate is the driver of the pollution. The severity of water quality problems are exacerbated by climate change both during scarcity and extreme events. Climate change will aggravate regional and global water scarcity by as much as 15 to 40 percent, which will mean that sewage dominated waterways and unplanned reuse will increase. And waterborne disease outbreaks tied to large precipitation events will continue to plague communities. This phenomenon has been found both in developing and developed regions of the world … The data we are now generating are available for us to produce global and country specific maps on pathogen risks associated with fecal pollution … We now have the diagnostic tools and risk frameworks to utilize the data necessary to maximize the potential for the blue economy around the world, to enhance industrial activities and tourism, to improve the designated uses of waterways for water supply, recreation and agriculture and very importantly produce jobs where skilled human resources will be needed. The data around the world on pathogens in sewage and their removal are tremendous and once collated will be extremely useful … Networks between public health institutions, universities, water providers and managers. Risk analysis frameworks to integrate science and policy and promote the translation of science into action around sewage sources …
Johannesburg Tightens Water Controls as Record Drought Persists
September 6, 2016 — South Africa’s biggest city tightened water restrictions as high spring temperatures and dry weather meant dam levels continued to drop, adding to the effect of record-low rainfall in 2015. Johannesburg must cut water consumption by 15 percent or face forced cuts, the city said in a statement … In addition to restrictions imposed in November, consumers may not use sprinklers in their gardens and will be charged extra for high usage. “If these measures are not effective in reducing demand by 15 percent then the Johannesburg water system will face the risk of outages,” the city said. “We request residents to take this seriously” … The 15 percent reduction in usage in Johannesburg will help to ease pressure on water levels in the Integrated Vaal River System, which have dropped below the 60 percent threshold …
5 September 2016 More water restrictions hit Joburg …
Israel’s water crisis isn’t over: Dead Sea, Lake Kinneret and aquifer levels are all down
Sep 06, 2016 Desalination has eased the water shortage, but continued drought, over-pumping and the needs of a growing population are playing havoc with the country’s ecology … Water shortage in northern Israel is worst in past 100 years, new data shows … Most of the public believes that desalination has helped Israel overcome its chronic water crisis, but water experts say this isn’t quite true and warn against complacency. The monthly report for August published by the Hydrological Service of the Israel Water Authority shows a sharper-than-usual drop this summer in the level of Lake Kinneret, the Dead Sea, the northern streams and all the underground aquifers. What’s more, domestic and international forecasts predict that at least the first half of the winter is going to be dry. If these forecasts are realized, the Kinneret this year will drop to its near-lowest level in 10 years. Although Israel’s desalination plants indeed meet an increasing quantity of the country’s water consumption, at the local level the current crisis may cause serious damage to agriculture and nature … The level of the Dead Sea, meanwhile, dropped 13 centimeters in August. Since the beginning of the hydrological year (which begins in October), the Dead Sea level has dropped 103 centimeters, 22 percent more than the drop in the corresponding period of the previous hydrological year. Over the past 25 years, the level of the Dead Sea has dropped nearly 25 meters. Today almost no water flows into it from the Jordan River, whose waters are diverted to provide drinking water to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Israel … Israel’s last serious water crisis was in 2008, when the government launched a major water-saving campaign and expedited the construction of desalination plants … “To build a desalination plant takes three years,” says Prof. Daniel Kurtzman of the Volcani Center, “but to build the infrastructure to carry the water great distances takes many years. They started to build the fifth water line to Jerusalem in 2003, and it will be many more years before it’s finished.” Thus, areas that are distant from the desalination plants must continue to rely on natural water sources and will suffer during a drought despite Israel’s desalination capabilities … Golan farmers, who rely primarily on surface reservoirs, are the primary victims of the current situation … Now there are plans to drill deep wells in the Golan that concern environmental organizations … A study by Amir Givati, the head of surface water management at the Israel Water Authority, points to a global climatic change that will affect the region going forward …
Egypt: Impact Studies For Grand Renaissance Dam Postponed
September 4, 2016 Egypt’s water resources minister announced Sept. 4 that the contract signing with two French consultancy firms to study the impact of Ethiopia’s Grand Renaissance Dam on downriver countries was postponed due to "unresolved issues" … Another reason behind the postponement was that the firms‘ experts were not granted entry visas to Sudan. The signing of the contracts between the firms and Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan was to take place on Sept. 5-6 in Sudan’s Khartoum. Egypt is coordinating with the consultancy firms and the Sudanese and Ethiopian sides to agree on a new date for the meetings. Cairo has repeatedly expressed concerns that Ethiopia’s dam could affect its share of Nile water, or that the hydroelectric dam could be used for reasons other than electricity generation. Addis Ababa insists that the nearly complete dam project will not hurt downstream countries.
Danke für diesen Hinweis nach Berlin-Mitte! J.B.
Africa: At the Nexus of Water and Climate Change
3 September 2016 … at World Water Week … Susanne Skyllerstedt, programme officer for Water, Climate Change and Development at the Global Water Partnership (GWP), says her organisation is working with Sub-Saharan African governments to incorporate adaptation strategies into the partnership’s climate change programme. "For us, resolutions of COP21 are part and parcel of what we are implementing and those of COP22 (in Marrakech) will be embedded in our long-term agenda of ensuring water security in Africa and rest of the developing world in a bid to attain water-related sustainable development goals" … GWP has a programme that was started in Africa through the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) together with the African Union Commission and other development partners. The programme has been a key platform for supporting African governments. These include support on national climate change adaptation programmes more so in the sphere of policy formulation. For Sub-Saharan Africa countries noted for vulnerability to impacts of global climate change, the programme is key in supporting climate adaptation and mitigation initiatives. Through monitoring and evaluation programmes conducted in the recent past, GWP has learned vital lessons and is cognisant of areas that need more resources to achieve the desired goals … implementing initiatives aimed at enabling countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to acquire highly relevant technologies on sustainable water management … GWP is also developing tools for better planning on water, sanitation and hygiene to help communities during calamities such as floods … For the next three years GWP intends to widen its support to encompass not only national climate change adaptation programmes but also Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) on reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that countries published prior to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris …
BDEW zur Konzeption Zivile Verteidigung
24. August 2016 Das Bundeskabinett hat heute die Konzeption Zivile Verteidigung verabschiedet. Das Konzept beinhaltet auch Empfehlungen für die Bereiche Energie, Trinkwasserversorgung und Abwasserentsorgung. Hierzu erklärt der BDEW: Eine solche Konzeption zu erarbeiten und regelmäßig an neue Erfordernisse und Entwicklungen anzupassen, ist richtig. "Bei der weiteren Ausgestaltung der Konzeption sollte die Bundesregierung jedoch die Expertise der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft systematisch einbeziehen", sagte Stefan Kapferer, Vorsitzender der BDEW-Hauptgeschäftsführung heute in Berlin … Im Krisenfall sind zudem funktionierende Notsysteme der Trinkwasserver- und Abwasserentsorgung entscheidend für die Bevölkerung, so der BDEW. In der Wasserwirtschaft gibt es bereits Regelwerke und Konzepte zur Notversorgung, die in Abstimmung mit den kommunalen und regionalen Behörden kontinuierlich weiterentwickelt werden. Auch hier sollte die Politik den intensiven Austausch mit der Branche suchen. Aus wasserwirtschaftlicher Sicht sollte die heute vorgelegte Konzeption an einigen Punkten geschärft werden. So fehlt beispielsweise der Hinweis, dass bereits ein Notbrunnensystem existiert und dass dieses von den Bundesländern modernisiert werden sollte, so der BDEW.
23.08.16 Auch im Katastrophenfall sicher: Die Wasserversorgung mit Notbrunnen …
bdew: Trinkwasser Daten und Grafiken
Weißbuch 2016: Viel Sicherheitspolitik und Bundeswehr, aber keine umfassende Strategie
13.07.2016 … Auch dazu, wie das Ziel eines "verantwortungsvollen Umgangs mit begrenzten Ressourcen und knappen Gütern" erreicht werden soll, finden sich im Weißbuch lediglich wolkige Hinweise …
… zum BEZUGSDOKUMENT: Bundesministerium der Verteidigung > Startseite > Weißbuch 2016 > Weißbuch 2016 veröffentlicht
Water shortages hit West Bank Palestinians, provoking war of words
Aug 23, 2016 At the peak of a searing summer, Palestinians living in parts of the Israeli-occupied West Bank are suffering from severe water shortages, prompting a war of words between Palestinian and Israeli officials over who is responsible. The Palestinians say Israel is preventing them from accessing adequate water at an affordable price, and point out that nearby Israeli settlements have plentiful water supplies. Israel says the Palestinians have been allocated double the amount they were due under an interim 1995 agreement, and have refused to discuss solutions to the current problem … Israel’s Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories, a branch of the military that administers Palestinian civil issues, said Israel provides 64 million cubic meters of water to the Palestinians annually, even though under the 1995 Oslo accords it is only obliged to provide 30 million … the water needs in the West Bank, which the Palestinians want for a state together with East Jerusalem and Gaza, are greater than the infrastructure can handle … The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), which is working with the Palestinian Authority and Italian aid agency GVC to provide water to impoverished areas, has warned that up to 35,000 Palestinians are at risk because of the shortages … Palestinians living furthest from urban areas have been the hardest hit, he said, often having to pay large sums to get private companies to truck water to their villages …
Maya-Untergang wegen Wasser-Reservoirs?
23. August 2016 … Die Maya-Kultur erlebte ihre Blüte zwischen 300 und 900 n. Chr. im heutigen Guatemala, Honduras und Südmexiko. Es folgte binnen kurzer Zeit ein Bevölkerungseinbruch, dessen Gründe nicht klar sind. Wiener Forscher liefern nun mit Hilfe sozio-hydrologischer Rechenmodelle eine mögliche Erklärung: Dürren könnten zum Niedergang geführt haben, trotz – oder gerade wegen der Wasserreservoirs der Mayas … "Wasser beeinflusst die Gesellschaft und die Gesellschaft beeinflusst das Wasser" … So bestimme der Wasservorrat wie viel Nahrung zur Verfügung stehe und beeinflusse somit das Bevölkerungswachstum. Bei steigender Einwohnerzahl werde umgekehrt in den natürlichen Wasserkreislauf eingegriffen – etwa durch den Bau von Wasserreservoirs … Die TU-Wissenschafter versuchen, diese Wechselwirkungen zwischen soziologischen und hydrologischen Effekten in mathematische Modelle zu fassen. So können etwa zwischen vorhandener Nahrungsmenge und Geburtenrate mathematische Zusammenhänge hergestellt werden, oder zwischen den Erinnerungen an eine Dürre und der gesellschaftlichen Entscheidung, neue Wasserreservoirs zu bauen. Kombiniert man solche Zusammenhänge mit historischen oder aktuellen Daten, lassen sich verschiedene Szenarien des Zusammenspiels von Mensch und Natur berechnen … So haben die Wissenschafter die Auswirkungen der Wasserreservoirs berechnet, die die Mayas für ihr Bewässerungssystem gebaut haben … Wie sich zeigt, können solche Reservoirs tatsächlich helfen, kleinere Dürreperioden gut zu überstehen. Während die Bevölkerung in der Simulation ohne Wasservorräte nach einer Dürre zurückgeht, kann sie mit Reservoirs weiter wachsen. Doch genau das mache die Bevölkerung in bestimmten Fällen verwundbar: Wenn das Verhalten gleich bleibe, der Wasserbedarf pro Kopf also nicht gesenkt werde, aber die Bevölkerung weiter wachse, könne eine weitere Dürre zu einem Bevölkerungsrückgang führen. Und dieser sei dramatischer als er ohne Wasserreservoirs gewesen wäre … Ohne Verhaltensänderung und Reduktion des Verbrauchs könne es "trotz kluger technischer Lösungen passieren, dass die Gesellschaft nicht sicherer sondern im Gegenteil immer katastrophenanfälliger wird".
Palästina – Streit um das Wasser
18.08.2016 Die ARD sorgt mit einem Bericht über Wasserknappheit in den palästinensischen Gebieten, der in der „Tagesschau“ und in den „Tagesthemen“ lief, für eine Kontroverse … Der umstrittene Korrespondentenbeitrag handelte davon, dass es in dem Ort Salfit im Westjordanland zu wenig Wasser gebe und dass Israel dafür verantwortlich sei. Stimmen aus Israel zu diesem Vorwurf kamen in dem in zwei Versionen gesendeten Beitrag nicht oder nur ganz am Rande vor. In Frage gestellt wird auch die Ursache fehlenden Wassers in dem im Beitrag vorgestellten Haushalt einer palästinensischen Familie … Der Sender verwahrt sich vor allem gegen den Vorwurf, es seien in dem Beitrag Bilder manipuliert worden. Auch sei man von der Glaubwürdigkeit des als Zeugen herangezogenen Hydrogeologen Clemens Messerschmid, der in der Gegend lebt, überzeugt. Er arbeite seit fast zwanzig Jahren für internationale Organisationen und habe sich mit der Wasserproblematik intensiv auseinandergesetzt. Messerschmid wird aufgrund früherer Einlassungen eine Parteinahme gegen Israel angelastet. Was man aufrichtig bedauere, schreibt der BR, sei, „dass wir es versäumt haben, die israelische Seite durch einen eigenen O-Ton zu Wort kommen zu lassen“. Grund dafür sei ein hoher jüdischer Feiertag gewesen, der verhinderte, dass man in einer israelischen Siedlung drehen durfte, und aufgrund dessen angefragte Experten abgesagt hätten … Vor zweieinhalb Jahren hatte der Präsident des Europäischen Parlaments, Martin Schulz, mit Äußerungen über die Wasserknappheit vor dem israelischen Parlament einen Sturm der Entrüstung hervorgerufen. „Wie kann es sein, dass Israelis siebzig Liter Wasser am Tag benutzen dürfen und Palästinenser nur siebzehn?“, habe ihn ein Palästinenser während seines Besuchs in Ramallah gefragt, berichtete Schulz in seiner Knesset-Rede. Eigene Zahlen nannte er nicht; er zog auch keine Schlussfolgerungen aus den Worten des anonymen Palästinensers. Am Ende kritisierte sogar Ministerpräsident Benjamin Netanjahu Schulz dafür, dass er Israel beschuldigt habe, ohne sich mit den Fakten vertraut zu machen.
Iran, Japan to Jointly Save Lake Oroumiyeh
August, 15, 2016 – Iran plans to save the endangered Lake Oroumiyeh in northwest of the country in joint cooperation with Japanese experts, the secretary of Oroumiyeh Lake Revival Headquarters said … Mohammad Masoud Tajrishi underlined the government’s determination to save one of the world’s largest saltwater lakes from disappearing, saying that a joint operation by Iranian and Japanese teams will be carried next week to that end. He added that the teams will be tasked with reducing water loss in areas surrounding the lake as much as possible, using pipes and proper water distribution network … that the operation will require farmers operating near the lake manage water consumption and help revive it … Lake Oroumiyeh has lost more than 60 percent of its surface over the last two decades due to drought and the damming of rivers feeding it …
Danke nach Berlin-Mitte! J.B.
Klimawandel, Wassermangel, nachhaltige Entwicklung – wie meistern wir die Herausforderungen der Zukunft?
17.07.2016 Iran leidet seit Jahren unter anderem wegen des Klimawandels unter extremem Wassermangel und gehört zu den am schnellsten austrocknenden Ländern der Welt. Der Urmia-See wird zur Salzwüste. Die Hauptstadt Teheran gilt weltweit als eine der unter Luftverschmutzung am stärksten leidenden Städte. Was können die internationale Gemeinschaft, Iran und Deutschland tun, um die Geschwindigkeit der globalen Erwärmung zu reduzieren? Welche Maßnahmen können diesen Prozess aufhalten und das Land von weiteren Auswirkungen des Klimawandels schützen? Diese und weitere Fragen werden von interantionalen Experten diskutiert … Teilnehmer: Prof. Dr. Klaus Töpfer, ehemaliger Bundesumweltminister und Direktor des Umweltprogramms der Vereinten Nationen (UNEP)
Dr. Masoumeh Ebtekar, iranische Vizepräsidentin und Leiterin der iranischen Umweltbehörde. Moderiert wird die Veranstaltung von Luc Walpot, dem Mittel-Ost-Korrespondenten des deutschen Fernsehsenders ZDF …
In zehn Jahren wird das Wasser in Hamburg knapp
15.08.2016 Um die Wasserversorgung zu sichern, will Hamburg Wasser künftig auch auf privaten Grundstücken Grundwasser fördern. Bis 2035 ist Wasser in der Stadt knapp, 2025 könnte es besonders eng werden. Trotz seiner Lage am Wasser kann Hamburg seinen Trinkwasserbedarf aktuell nur knapp decken. Rechnerisch und inklusive aller Sicherheitsabschläge steht bis zum Jahr 2035 sogar zu wenig Wasser zur Verfügung. Das geht aus dem neusten „Statusbericht zur Trinkwasserversorgung“ hervor, den der Senat vor wenigen Tagen veröffentlicht hat. Und auch, dass Hamburg Wasser künftig sogar auf Privatleute zugehen wird, um mit Brunnen auf privaten Grundstücken die Wasserversorgung sicherstellen zu können. Seitdem Ende der 60er Jahre die Wasseraufbereitung von Elbwasser wegen zu großer Verschmutzung des Flusses eingestellt worden ist, nutzt Hamburg Wasser ausschließlich Grundwasser für die Trinkwasseraufbereitung … Drei Wasserwerke des Hamburger Grundversorgers liegen in Schleswig-Holstein. Eines in Niedersachsen. Um die Fördererlaubnis dieses Werkes in der Nordheide wird seit Jahren gerungen … Ein Faktor, den der Senat deutlich als Risiko für die Sicherheit der Wasserversorgung einstuft. … Brunnenstandorte werden in der immer dichter besiedelten Stadt zunehmend knapp. Hamburg Wasser wird deshalb künftig vermehrt öffentliche Flächen nutzen müssen. Laut des Berichts des Senates geht es dabei um Brunnen in Parks, an Krankenhäusern, auf Schulhöfen oder Spielplätzen, um die Trinkwasserversorgung weiter sicherstellen zu können. Es werde aber auch nötig sein auf private Eigentümer zuzugehen …
Ureinwohner im Regenwald atmen auf: Geplanter Mega-Staudamm fällt ins Wasser
05.Aug 2016 Die brasilianische Umweltbehörde verhindert den Bau eines gigantischen Staudamms im Amazonasgebiet, der die Heimat des Munduruku-Stammes zerstört hätte … Die Umweltbehörde … hat dem Betreiber Electrobrás die zum Bau nötige Lizenz verweigert … Etwa 12.000 Mitglieder des Stammes der Munduruku leben in dem betroffenen Gebiet um den Tapajós-Fluss im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Pará. Der Staudamm São Luiz do Tapajós sollte 7,6 Kilometer lang werden und hätte eine Fläche eingenommen, die fast so groß wie New York gewesen wäre. Damit wären die Heimat der Munduruku und große Gebiete des artenreichen Regenwaldes zerstört worden … Auch in Deutschland gab es Proteste. Sie richteten sich vor allem gegen Siemens, da der Konzern die Turbinen für den Damm liefern sollte … Die brasilianische Umweltbehörde setzt mit der Lizenzverweigerung ein deutliches Zeichen gegen die Energiegewinnung durch gigantische Wasserkraftwerke im Amazonasgebiet. 70 Prozent der Erneuerbaren Energien in Brasilien kommen bereits aus der Wasserkraft. Der geplante Riesen-Staudamm hätte weitere 8000 Megawatt erzeugt, etwa soviel wie sechs Atomkraftwerke. Doch der Verlust des natürlichen Lebensraumes im Amazonas wiegt schwerer. Zumal der Bau des Megaprojektes Belo Monte am Nachbarfluss Rio Xingu trotz internationaler Proteste bereits begonnen hat. 2019 soll dieser Staudamm 11.233 Megawatt liefern können.
Wasserkrise in Jordanien – Gott hasst die Verschwender
21.7.2016 Jordanien ist ein kleines, wirtschaftlich schwaches und extrem wasserarmes Land … In einem Land, das laut den Vereinten Nationen zu den zehn wasserärmsten der Welt gehört, zählt Mafrak zu den besonders betroffenen Orten. Während Jordaniens Grundwasserspiegel im Schnitt um einen Meter pro Jahr sinkt, soll er hier um fünf Meter sinken. Weitgehend abgepumpt sind schon die meisten Grundwasservorkommen des Landes. Auch gehen aufgrund des Klimawandels die Niederschläge zurück. Und als hätte das kleine Königreich nicht Probleme genug, muss es seit Beginn des Bürgerkrieges im Nachbarland auch noch den Zuzug von über einer Million syrischen Flüchtlingen bewältigen. Allein nach Mafrak, das nur 15 Kilometer Wüstenstrasse von der Grenze trennen, kamen 100 000 von ihnen. Schlagartig hat sich mit ihnen die Einwohnerzahl des Ortes verdoppelt … Knapp 650 000 Schutzsuchende aus Syrien hat das Uno-Flüchtlingshilfswerk in Jordanien seit 2012 registriert. Von über einer Million sprechen unabhängige Beobachter, von bis zu zwei Millionen regierungsnahe Kreise. Nur etwa 20 Prozent von ihnen leben in einem der drei syrischen Flüchtlingslager … Auf den Ansturm der Flüchtlinge war das kleine Land mit seiner heimischen Bevölkerung von 6,6 Millionen einfach nicht vorbereitet: Besonders in den strukturschwachen Städten des Nordens stiegen die Mieten, wurden Wasser und Wohnraum immer knapper, fielen die Löhne. Dass die Einheimischen dies hinnahmen und es bisher nicht zu grösseren Protesten kam – ein Wunder … Sicher gebe es auch Spannungen zwischen Jordaniern und Syrern. Doch helfe in diesen Fällen die gemeinsame Religion: «Der Islam verbindet uns.» Um die Bürger daran zu erinnern, setzt der Staat auch hier auf seine Prediger, die in den Moscheen zur Brüderlichkeit aufrufen und so den öffentlichen Frieden wahren sollen – während sie gleichzeitig Lektionen im Wasserschutz erteilen … In einem Sitzungsraum in der Hauptstadt Amman haben sich rund 20 Frauen eingefunden. Sie sind ohne Ausnahme verhüllt … Es sind «Waidat», weibliche Religionsgelehrte, sie kommen aus allen Teilen des Landes. Soeben hat ihr Kurs begonnen, der auch sie zu Wasserbotschaftern ausbilden soll. Hayat Bakir, eine energische Mittfünfzigerin, steht vor einer Tafel. Sie begrüsst die Schwarzgewandeten und ruft ihnen zu: «Schwestern, ich werde euch heute erklären, warum Wassersparen so wichtig ist, was dazu im Koran steht und was der Prophet, Allahs Segen und Frieden auf ihm, sagt.» Anders als die Imame predigen die Waidat nicht öffentlich, sondern führen Hausbesuche durch und arbeiten in ihren Stadtvierteln als Seelsorgerinnen. Mit welchen Fragen werden sie dabei konfrontiert, Frau Bakir? «Zum Beispiel, ob die Wasserarmut real ist oder eine Erfindung der Regierung. Einige wollen auch wissen, warum sie ihr Wasser rationieren sollen, während sich die Reichen einen Swimmingpool leisten.» Ihre Antwort? «Jeder ist für sich selbst verantwortlich. Aber am Ende müssen wir uns alle vor Gott verantworten.» Wer Wasser spare, handle moralisch und im Sinne der Religion, sagt Bakir. An 63 Stellen im Koran werde die Bedeutung des Wassers erwähnt. Nicht zuletzt gehe es auch darum, Geld zu sparen. Und welche Rationen empfiehlt sie ihren Glaubensschwestern? Bakir zieht eine 0,3-Liter-Flasche aus der Handtasche. «So viel und nicht mehr für die rituelle Waschung. Für jede Dusche: maximal fünf Minuten.» Wasser sparen durch Religion, kann das funktionieren? Björn Zimprich von der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) ist überzeugt davon. Im Auftrag der jordanischen Regierung hat seine Organisation das Trainingsprogramm für die Imame und Waidat auf die Beine gestellt. Bis zu 1,5 Millionen Menschen sollen so für den Wasserschutz sensibilisiert werden. Zweifel, ob die mitunter strenggläubigen Gelehrten geeignete Ansprechpartner sind, hat Zimprich nicht. Man arbeite schliesslich «im Umfeld der gesellschaftlichen Realitäten» … Angesichts dieser Zwänge ist Hazim al-Nasser, Jordaniens Minister für Wasser und Bewässerung, nicht zu beneiden. Schon drei seiner Vorgänger, erzählt der Ingenieur in einem klimatisierten Saal in Amman, wurden wegen schlechter Trinkwasserqualität, Engpässen oder Korruption entlassen … Wasser … genügt schon jetzt kaum für die wachsende Bevölkerung, weswegen sich Nassers Ministerium nicht auf Aufklärungskampagnen beschränkt: Es saniert Kläranlagen, kürzt den Wasserbedarf bei Landwirten (um sie zu effizienteren Bewässerungssystemen zu zwingen) und zerstörte bisher 800 illegale Brunnen, gegen die in der Vergangenheit nichts unternommen wurde; die aber eine Erklärung für die massiven Wasserverluste im Land sind. Mit Haftstrafen sollen die Wasserdiebe künftig abgeschreckt werden. Als wichtigstes Projekt aber beschreibt Nasser den Bau einer Pipeline vom Roten zum Toten Meer, mit der nicht nur Trinkwasser gewonnen, sondern auch die Austrocknung des Toten Meers gestoppt werden soll … Im Gegenzug für den Verkauf von Trinkwasser an den Süden Israels verpflichtet sich Israel zudem, Jordanien im Norden etwa 50 Millionen Kubikmeter Wasser jährlich aus dem See Genezareth zu verkaufen. Weitere 30 Millionen Kubikmeter werden den Palästinensern zugesprochen. «Wir haben viele politische Differenzen, aber das hier ist eine Win-win-Situation für alle», schwärmt Wasserminister Hazim al-Nasser …
The Arab World’s Water Insecurity
JUL 19, 2016 – Nowhere is freshwater scarcer than in the Arab world. The region is home to most of the world’s poorest states or territories in terms of water resources, including Bahrain, Djibouti, Gaza, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. This shortage – exacerbated by exploding populations, depletion and degradation of natural ecosystems, and popular discontent – is casting a shadow over these countries’ future. There is no shortage of challenges facing the Arab world. Given that many Arab states are modern constructs invented by departing colonial powers, and therefore lack cohesive historical identities, their state structures often lack strong foundations. Add to that external and internal pressures – including from surging Islamism, civil wars, and mass migration from conflict zones – and the future of several Arab countries appears uncertain. Are global economic recovery and political renewal still far off, or did they already begin long ago? Brad DeLong, Ana Palacio, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, and others weigh in on growth, war, and more. What few seem to recognize is how water scarcity contributes to this cycle of violence. One key trigger of the Arab Spring uprisings – rising food prices – was directly connected to the region’s worsening water crisis. Water also fuels tensions between countries. Saudi Arabia and Jordan, for example, are engaged in a silent race to pump the al-Disi aquifer, which they share. Water can even be wielded as a weapon. In Syria, the Islamic State has seized control of the upstream basins of the two main rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The fact that nearly half of all Arabs depend on freshwater inflows from non-Arab countries, including Turkey and the upstream states on the Nile River, may serve to exacerbate water insecurity further … Finally, many countries offer subsidies on water, not to mention gasoline and food, in an effort to “buy” social peace. But such subsidies encourage profligate practices, accelerating water-resource depletion and environmental degradation. In short, the Arab world is increasingly trapped in a vicious cycle. Environmental, demographic, and economic pressures aggravate water scarcity, and the resulting unemployment and insecurity fuels social unrest, political turmoil, and extremism. Governments respond with increased subsidies on water and other resources, deepening the environmental challenges that exacerbate scarcity and lead to unrest. Urgent action is needed to break the cycle. For starters, countries should phase out the production of water-intensive crops. Grains, oilseeds, and beef should be imported from water-rich countries, where they can be produced more efficiently and sustainably … the introduction of more advanced technologies and best practices from around the world could help to reduce water use. Membrane and distillation technologies can be used to purify degraded or contaminated water, reclaim wastewater, and desalinate brackish or ocean water. Highly efficient drip irrigation can boost the region’s fruit and vegetable production, without excessive water use. Another important step would be to expand and strengthen water infrastructure to address seasonal imbalances in water availability, make distribution more efficient, and harvest rainwater, thereby opening up an additional source of supply. Jordan, with Israeli collaboration and European Union aid, is creating a Red Sea-Dead Sea pipeline, a conduit that would desalinate Red Sea water, in order to provide potable water to Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian territories, and then funnel the brine to the dying Dead Sea. Improved water management is also crucial. One way to achieve this is to price water more appropriately, which would create an incentive to prevent wastage and conserve supplies … in order to break the cycle of violence and insecurity, all countries will ultimately have to step up to improve water management and protect ecosystems. Otherwise, their water woes – along with internal unrest – will only worsen.
What You Need to Know About the World’s Water Wars
July 14, 2016 Underground water is being pumped so aggressively around the globe that land is sinking, civil wars are being waged, and agriculture is being transformed … The groundwater has been so depleted that China’s capital city, home to more than 20 million people, could face serious disruptions in its rail system, roadways, and building foundations, an international team of scientists concluded earlier this year. Beijing, despite tapping into the gigantic North China Plain aquifer, is the world’s fifth most water-stressed city and its water problems are likely to get even worse. Beijing isn’t the only place experiencing subsidence, or sinking, as soil collapses into space created as groundwater is depleted. Parts of Shanghai, Mexico City, and other cities are sinking, too. Sections of California’s Central Valley have dropped by a foot, and in some localized areas, by as much as 28 feet … Now, the world’s largest underground water reserves in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas are under stress. Many of them are being drawn down at unsustainable rates. Nearly two billion people rely on groundwater that is considered under threat … Over the past three decades, Saudi Arabia has been drilling for a resource more precious than oil. Engineers and farmers have tapped hidden reserves of water to grow grains, fruits, and vegetables in the one of the driest places in the world. They are tapping into the aquifer at unsustainable rates … As regions and nations run short of water … economic growth will decline and food prices will spike, raising the risk of violent conflict and waves of large migrations. Unrest in Yemen, which heavily taps into groundwater and which experienced water riots in 2009, is rooted in a water crisis. Experts say water scarcity also helped destabilize Syria and launch its civil war. Jordan, which relies on aquifers as its only source of water, is even more water-stressed now that more than a half-million Syrian refugees arrived … The most over-stressed is the Arabian Aquifer System, which supplies water to 60 million people in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The Indus Basin aquifer in northwest India and Pakistan is the second-most threatened, and the Murzuk-Djado Basin in northern Africa the third … Irrigation has enabled water-intensive crops to be grown in dry places, which in turn created local economies that are now difficult to undo. These include sugar cane and rice in India, winter wheat in China, and corn in the southern High Plains of North America. Aquaculture has boomed in the land-locked Ararat Basin, which lies along the border between Armenia and Turkey. Groundwater is cold enough to raise cold-water fish, such as trout and sturgeon. In less than two decades, the aquifer there has been drawn down so severely for fish ponds that municipal water supplies in more than two dozen communities are now threatened … More is known about oil reserves than water … Depleted groundwater is a slow-speed crisis, scientists say, so there’s time to develop new technologies and water efficiencies. In Western Australia, desalinated water has been injected to recharge the large aquifer that Perth, Australia’s driest city, taps for drinking water. China is working to regulate pumping. In west Texas, the city of Abernathy is drilling into a deeper aquifer that lies beneath the High Plains aquifer and mixing the two to supplement the municipal water supply.
Immer mehr Europäer erleben einen Mangel an Wasser; Die Minister fordern eine gemeinsame Lösung
12. Juli 2016 – Der Klimawandel und damit verbundene abwechselnde Perioden von Überschwemmungen und Dürre waren die wichtigsten Themen der Ministerkonferenz zum Thema Wasser und des informellen Treffens des EU-Umweltrates … Die Debatte hat deutlich gezeigt, dass jedes EU-Land dieses Phänomen unterschiedlich erlebt. Einige Staaten leiden unter langanhaltender Dürre, andere unter häufigeren Überschwemmungen, und wieder andere erleben beide Arten dieser Extremereignisse. Das Mittelmeer beispielsweise erfährt eine immer länger andauernde Wasserknappheit, und gemäß einigen Prognosen besteht das Risiko, dass die Region mit einem afrikanischen Klimaszenario konfrontiert wird. Bis zu 70 Millionen Europäer sind in den Sommermonaten von Wasserproblemen betroffen und dieser Trend wird sich noch dramatisch verschlimmern … Obwohl die Probleme der einzelnen Länder spezifisch sind, forderten die Minister, die Festlegung von klaren gemeinsamen europäischen Zielen im Kampf gegen den Klimawandel, auch wenn es in diesem Fall keine universelle Lösung gibt. „Wasser können wir nicht als selbstverständlich betrachten, seine Ressourcen sind begrenzt und die Nachfrage steigt. Wir müssen es mehr schätzen. Auch wenn es nicht so scheint, betrifft es uns alle, weil ein Mangel an Wasser viele Risiken mit sich bringen kann, einschließlich sozialer Instabilität. Es gilt keine Zeit zu verlieren. Wir müssen einen gemeinsamen, europäischen, flexiblen und nachhaltigen Zugang zum effektiven Wassermanagement finden,“ sagte Umweltminister László Sólymos auf einer Pressekonferenz am … Die Minister einigten sich auf die Notwendigkeit, die Wiederverwendung und Rückgewinnung von Wasser zu verbessern … Sie hoben die Notwendigkeit eines besseren Wassermanagements in der Landwirtschaft hervor …Mehrere Minister denken, dass diese Frage nicht nur negative Seiten hat, sondern als eine gute Gelegenheit gesehen werden könnte, neue technologische Lösungen einzuführen …
Florida sinkhole causes vast leak of wastewater into drinking water source
17 September 2016 Phosphate supplier says ‘absolutely nobody at risk’ as company monitors groundwater at central Florida fertilizer plant. More than 200m gallons of contaminated wastewater from a fertilizer plant in central Florida leaked into one of the state’s main underground sources of drinking water after a huge sinkhole opened up beneath a storage pond … Mosaic, the world’s largest supplier of phosphate, said the hole opened up beneath a pile of waste material called a “gypsum stack” … Mosaic said it was monitoring groundwater and had found no offsite impacts … The sinkhole … is believed to reach down to the Floridan aquifer … Aquifers are vast, underground systems of porous rocks that hold water and allow water to move through the holes within the rock. The Floridan aquifer is a major source of drinking water in the state. One of the highest-producing aquifers in the world, it underlies all of Florida and extends into southern Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. According to the University of Florida, it’s the principal source of groundwater for much of the state, and the cities of Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Gainesville, Orlando, Daytona Beach, Tampa, and St Petersburg all rely on it. The aquifer also supplies water to thousands of domestic, industrial and irrigation wells throughout the state … Since the 1960s, toxic solid waste from fertilizer production in Florida has been growing – some stored in 500ft-tall piles that sometimes span more than 600 acres … In 2004, during Hurricane Frances, 65m gallons of polluted waste from a fertilizer plant was sent into waters near Tampa Bay, resulting in thousands of dead fish and other marine life. In 1994, a sinkhole in Polk County opened, sending tons of waste from one of the company’s waste piles into the earth …
PUC gives CalAm green light on water project
Sep 15, 2016 The California Public Utilities Commission unanimously approved CalAm’s request … to allow the company to buy recycled water … would come from supplies of the Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency and the Monterey Peninsula Water Management district. The CPUC also approved plans to build a … delivery pipeline and pump station for Cal-Am …
Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Authority
Kalifornien: Mit Drohnen noch mehr Wasser sparen
12/09/2016 … Mithilfe von Agrardrohnen versuchen kalifornische Landwirte, ihre Anbauflächen noch sparsamer zu bewässern, als bisher. Auf dieser Farm nahe Los Banos ist das Drohnen gestützte System im Einsatz. Cannon Michael, Bowles Farming Company: “Die Dürre ist ein enormes Problem und zwingt uns zu größtmöglicher Effizienz. Wir investieren in sehr teure Tropfbewässerungssysteme, mit denen wir 40 bis 50 Prozent Wasser im Vergleich zu vorher einsparen. Mit der neuen Drohnentechnologie haben wir ein zusätzliches Instrument, um zu überprüfen, ob die Systeme korrekt funktionieren, ob wir sie richtig eingestellt haben und ob es irgendwo Probleme gibt, bevor wir unnötig Wasser verschwenden.” Die per Smartphone oder Tablet kontrollierten Drohen liefern dank Wärmebildkamera detaillierte Bilder über den Zustand der Anbauflächen. Nicht nur etwaige Probleme bei der Bewässerung, auch Schädlingsbefall oder aber kontinuierliche Veränderungen der Pflanzen über einen längeren Zeitraum hinweg werden deutlich …
Striking a better balance between water investment and affordability
September 12, 2016 Water infrastructure is failing to keep up across the country, as a long list of replacement and maintenance backlogs looms in many communities. Leaks are now wasting more than a trillion gallons of water each year, while overburdened wastewater collection systems are struggling to handle sewer overflows and manage polluted runoff. The recent tragedy in Flint, moreover, has alerted communities of the pressing need to replace public and private lead service lines, adding an estimated $300 billion to the county’s collective water bill. Although some utilities are making improvements in resource recovery, climate adaptation, and a variety of other innovations that will prepare them for the decades ahead, the nagging reality is that most are not moving fast enough and simply do not have the money to accelerate new improvements. Even as national leaders bring greater visibility to water infrastructure – especially during the election season – states and localities remain the primary drivers for investment, accounting for more than 95 percent of all public spending on water each year. In response, many utilities are slowly but steadily increasing the water rates that they charge users after years of unrealistically low fees. But where does that leave the households and businesses who are already struggling to make ends meet? … In order to drive new water infrastructure investments and accurately assess affordability issues, regional leaders must take a more nuanced approach. At a local level, for instance, utilities can benefit from a clearer assessment of the equity of municipal water rates, which ideally can examine a range of different economic indicators and allow for an easier comparison of different rate structures. Likewise, by accounting for fundamental neighborhood and housing differences, utilities and their state partners can look to a more comprehensive set of measures to guide future policy decisions and affordability concerns. The creation of more robust customer assistance programs, which can provide discounts and extended payment options, also have the potential to lower barriers and provide relief to individuals who currently struggle to keep up with their bills. Nationally, continued discussions over water affordability and other federal technical guidance can further aid these efforts. Ultimately, regions face an enormous water infrastructure challenge that not only requires increased investment, but also a balancing of other long-term economic priorities. Addressing affordability needs to be a big part of that effort, but accounting for equity concerns can be incredibly complex and will likely demand better data, more targeted policies, and new models of financial support. As the water infrastructure gap continues to widen, the time is ripe for regions to experiment with new approaches and address water demands in a more sustainable and equitable manner.
Draining Oregon: State regulators must stop approving wells when water levels are unknown
September 10, 2016 State regulators approve permits for wells in Oregon even as they suspect there isn’t enough water in some areas to keep pace. A permit application might state it "cannot be determined" whether enough ground water existed for the well. Yet time and again, Oregon Water Resources Department managers approved the application. The lax regulatory culture is so engrained, some farmers and ranchers began pumping their wells before submitting an application … The practice of approving wells in untested basins must stop. And state lawmakers must act quickly to focus on the crisis they’ve failed to address for years … Department leaders defend their actions by saying they didn’t have the money or staff to do the research necessary to determine whether they should deny permits and defend their decisions. And yet they once offered up the small amount of research money they had for a potential budget cut … More than a dozen Oregon basins remain a mystery, and research must be done as soon as possible to determine their water levels. Oregonians need to know how much water is available to make responsible decisions about how to tap the aquifers deep underground … What’s most frustrating about this situation is how many of those likely to be affected are farming and ranching communities that have faced declining economies for years – often, they feel, because of government regulation. Some of that regulation was necessary to protect some lands and various species. But the Water Resources Department’s reluctance to regulate may have set up a situation in which some of the unmapped basins may already be dangerously low and water rights might have to be rescinded …
Pipeline protesters: ‚Water is life. We must protect it.‘
September 10, 2016 About 150 protesters convened at a Dakota Access pipeline worksite … northwest of Boone by the Des Moines River, urging listeners that “Water is life. We must protect it.” They voiced opposition to the oil pipeline, a $3.8 million project that will run underground through four states to bring crude oil from North Dakota to Illinois for Houston-based Dakota Access LLC. It is set to run under the Des Moines River … “We are challenging an unjust law,” said Carolyn Raffensperger, executive director of the Science and Environmental Health Network, which runs the Bakken Resistance Coalition. “The civil disobedience piece is that we aren’t challenging the law enforcement, we are challenging the law” … Jessica Fears of Ames had been arrested earlier in the week for protesting the pipeline, but she still came to Saturday’s protest to support a cause she cared about.
"I was willing to risk (getting arrested) again because I hope it creates awareness and helps people realize that we’re at the breaking point" … “We had faith in the legal system … But they failed us.”
These Native American Youths Are Running 2,000 Miles to Protect Their Water
08/05/2016 "Most of us coming from the reservation have never been this far from home," Bobbi Jean Three Legs, a resident of the Standing Rock Reservation, told PEOPLE on her 18th day of a 2,000-mile journey … The group ran from the Standing Rock Reservation in North Dakota all the way to Washington to hand over a petition started by Three Legs, 25, and Anna Lee Rain Yellowhammer, 13, to stop construction on a massive oil pipeline that would cross the Missouri River, putting their community’s sole water source at risk. The petition, addressed to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which approved plans for the pipeline in July, has earned 157,000 signatures and garnered support from a long list of celebrities including Leonardo DiCaprio, Shailene Woodley and Jason Momoa. "The support has been tremendous," Three Legs said. "I hope we’re opening a lot of people’s hearts and minds to the reality that protecting water isn’t just a native issue – it affects everybody" …
California’s water conservation dips in July — are eased rules to blame?
07.09.16 Urban water conservation across California dipped slightly during the second month that less stringent conservation requirements have been in place, state regulators said … More alarming to some, the 20% water-use reduction in July, compared with the same month in 2013, also marked a sharp decline from last summer, when residents and businesses saved more than 31% as concern about the drought reached a fever pitch. The drop-off between July 2015 and July 2016 will do little to allay the concerns of environmentalists who have criticized the State Water Resources Control Board for largely lifting mandatory water conservation requirements, and, they argue, paving the water for some Californians to return to profligate consumption … “What we see now is, instead of saving one drop in four … we’ve saved one drop in five,” board member Steven Moore said, … “Having invested time and effort into conservation, many Californians and their communities continue to hit it out of the park … Others are still very much in the game, while a few communities seem to be leaving the ballpark entirely.”
Colorado’s water engineer discusses wasting of state’s precious resource
September 6, 2016 Dick Wolfe, Colorado’s state water engineer, told a group of irrigators here last week that it’s illegal for someone to take more water than they need because they are speculating on the future potential value of their water rights … “He’s going to talk about probably one of the most misunderstood parts of Colorado water law, and that is ‘use it or lose it’” … began by saying that some people who own a water right can have a “misunderstanding” of what it means to “own and operate that water right in the context of ‘lose it or use it ”… when you go to change a water right in water court, “the measure of your water right is not based on how much you divert, but how much you consume of that. That’s how much you can take and transfer into the future. That’s what values that water right” … Or, in short, “beneficially use or lose it.” “The essence of a water right is the application to a beneficial use without waste,” said Wolfe, the official responsible for enforcing compliance with Colorado water law. “In Colorado there are laws — specific provisions and statutes — that prevent someone from wasting water” … Colorado Water Institute at Colorado State University issue a special report on the subject … is called “How diversion and beneficial use of water affect the value and measure of a water right,” and is subtitled “Is ‘use it or lose it’ an absolute?” … “Administration” refers to managing the almost 180,000 decreed water rights in Colorado, which give people the right to use water from the state’s rivers and aquifers, but do so in priority based on the date of their water rights. “We recognize that even some of our own staff had misunderstandings, misperceptions, of this ‘use it or lose it,’” Wolfe said. “So as water users come into contact with [our staff], we’ve got to make sure we are sending a consistent message on what it means when we talk about ‘use it or lose it’” … Every six years in Colorado “you either have to demonstrate that you are maintaining diligence or that you’ve put it to use to make it absolute,” Wolfe said of such rights. “If you have an inability to put that water to beneficial use, there is a potential to lose that through [the] diligence process” … explained that every 10 years, regional division engineers prepare an “abandonment list” of water rights that have not been used consecutively in the last 10 years … Wolfe said the state of Colorado has the right to reduce the amount of water someone diverts from the river, if they are taking more than they need to get the job at hand done. “If we determine in that process that there is waste occurring, than we can curtail that water right back to what we think is a representative duty of water,” Wolfe said. “Remember, in the state constitution, the water belongs to the public. It’s the public resource, and there are a lot of laws written trying to protect this precious resource we have. “We have this duty to only use what you beneficially need without waste, because there is all these other people and other uses that rely on that public resource.”
America’s Water Supply: The Corrosion of a Proud Tradition
August 29, 2016 U.S. communities suffer from about a quarter of a million water main breaks every year, mostly due to aging pipes. The debacle in Flint, Michigan was a betrayal of the public trust at every level of government … In early twentieth century America, it was not safe to drink water from public taps. Cities routinely dumped raw sewage into nearby rivers, thus causing their downstream neighbors to suffer epidemics of waterborne diseases … This practice finally ended after Congress passed the 1972 Clean Water Act … In the 1980s, Congress’s taste for funding the construction costs waned, and it created a revolving funds program, which provided low-interest loans to states and cities. That worked pretty well for a while. But, in subsequent decades, spending on water and wastewater infrastructure plummeted. In the aftermath of the Great Recession, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Mr. Obama’s stimulus program) devoted only $6 billion out of $800 billion to our water systems. That’s not chump change but the scale of the problem is immense. Our water infrastructure consists of approximately 54,000 drinking water systems, with more than 700,000 miles of pipes, and 17,000 wastewater treatment plants, with an additional 800,000 miles of pipes. A 2012 report of the American Water Works Association concluded that more than a million miles of these pipes need repair or replacement. That’s why communities across the nation suffer 240,000 water main breaks per year. The major cause of pipe failure is age … Solving this problem presents a daunting challenge that asks us who we are as a people. Do we care enough about our communities to make water infrastructure a priority? It won’t be an easy road: No politician wants to run for reelection on a campaign of having overhauled the sewer system. Yet, recent polls suggest that Americans want public officials to act and are ready to pay more for a secure supply of safe water. Public officials—local, state, and federal—must devote substantial funds to modernize water and wastewater systems. Congress, in particular, should initiate a new Clean Water Act program to underwrite the costs of municipal water treatment plants and should vastly increase funding for loans to states and cities. State and local governments should issue ultra-long-term government bonds (perhaps for 50 years as European governments have recently done), so that modernization can begin now but the repayment costs spread out over longer periods … Our water and wastewater systems have set the benchmark for the world. We should feel pride in this stunning achievement. Now, we need to summon the resolve to fix the problem and maintain the proud tradition of providing safe, clean water and wastewater treatment to virtually every American.
8 takeaways from ‚Draining Oregon‘: The big water giveaway
August 26, 2016 … After years of liberally granting access to underground water across the high desert of southeastern Oregon, the state abruptly told irrigators it would accept no new applications to pump wells. Regulators launched a 5-year study, saying they feared newly dug wells were sucking up unsustainable quantities of water. Cattle ranching and alfalfa, once bright spots in the struggling rural economy, were thrown into limbo. How could Oregon so freely approve pumping permits for so long, then suddenly announce concerns so serious that they required immediate action? … State regulators frequently lack the basic information they need to make sound decisions about the water that flows under Oregon’s surface. Faced with knowledge gaps, they regularly dole out water anyway. The result, often, is groundwater declines that threaten people and the environment … Here are some key takeaways: 1. Underground water in Oregon is a big deal. More than 5,000 farms in Oregon’s $5.4 billion agricultural industry rely on well water to survive. Nearly a million Oregonians need wells for water they drink. 2. Oregon regulators are granting irrigators access to water they don’t know we have. Oregon regulators have given away rights to pump groundwater that would fill 150 million tanker trucks annually. Yet in most of the state, they don’t know with certainty how much water is down there … 3. Regulators also have no way to know how much we’re using. Most well owners aren’t required to meter and report their water use … 4. Even when regulators have reason to suspect there isn’t enough water to sustain new well development, they sometimes grant permits anyway … 5. Oregon’s approach to groundwater management has diminished groundwater supplies. Across 26 percent of eastern Oregon, an analysis by The Oregonian/Oregonlive found, irrigators are allowed to pump more water than Mother Nature can replace each year. 6. The overpumping of Oregon’s groundwater harms people, plants and animals alike … Pumping can dry up desert wetlands, killing the rare plants that thrive there, and it can deprive fish of the coldwater hiding spots they depend on during hot summer days. For humans, overpumping means well owners siphon water from other users … 7. … Regulators struggle to rein in groundwater use in part because they face enormous public and political pressure to keep the water flowing … State politicians have repeatedly rejected new money sources for the water resources department. At the current rate of funding, the state won’t complete full studies of all Oregon groundwater basins for at least 80 years. 8. Alternatives are out there; we just haven’t pursued them. Regulators have contemplated ending the unofficial policy of approving new wells without data to determine their impact, but they haven’t done it. Lawmakers could find the $75 million and additional staffing needed to complete the research regulators say they need to make decisions about new pumping. There are also ways to encourage frugality. Australia created a market in water rights, and some irrigation districts charge a per-gallon fee on water.
Australia’s solution to California’s water woes: markets
August 25, 2016 Australia recognized the need to make the best possible use of existing resources. “Water markets and trading were the primary means to achieve this,” the National Water Commission explained in "Water Markets: A Short History" … Creating a working water market “required policy makers to put faith in the collective wisdom of water users, rather than governments, in deciding how to make the best use of the resource,” the commission says. The results have confirmed their judgment. The flexibility and autonomy of water trading has “increased agricultural production, helped farmers and communities to survive severe drought, and provided the mechanism for recovering water for the environment.” Today, according to the commission, Australia’s water markets are internationally recognized as a success story, “allowing water to be put to its most productive uses, for a price determined by water users,” generating “economic benefits valued in hundreds of millions of dollars annually.” In California, as in Australia, water is not equally distributed among regions, counties and municipalities. The heavy-handed restrictions favored by legislators, and enforced by water police, are of limited effectiveness even in times of scarcity. The bureaucratic system remains unwieldy, expensive and sometimes litigious. Trials do not create supplies of water, but they do consume public resources, and time. California would be better served by a system of tradable water rights, a proven success in Australia. Instead of additional controls, what Californians need is a solution. That can be found Down Under.
Commonwealth of Australia 2011: Water markets in Australia – a short history
… Australia now has around two decades of experience in the establishment and implementation of water markets and can legitimately be seen as being among world leaders in the market-based allocation and management of scarce water resources. Lessons from the successes and shortcomings of that experience could guide reform in other settings and could help others to establish workable markets in less time. In summary, the lessons are as follows:
1. It is feasible to develop working water markets in complex hydrological systems, including across jurisdictional boundaries.
2. Well-designed water markets can deliver significant benefits in any system where water is scarce by signalling the value of water dynamically …
5. Universal prerequisites for effective water markets include:
+ setting an effective cap on total sustainable extractions (preferably before scarcity becomes acute)
+ establishing entitlements that are clearly specified, monitored and enforced so that users know exactly what they can buy and sell
+ establishing a sound regulatory and governance framework within which water trading can take place
+ implementing fundamental elements of good water management, such as metering and water accounting …
7. Measures to address environmental and social outcomes that could be affected by water trading should be carefully considered and targeted to limit interference with the operation of the market. Some interventions, such as restrictions on trade, are costly and have unintended negative consequences.
8. Market participants learn quickly and make decisions based on the rules that are in place …
9. As water markets mature and develop, roles and responsibilities influencing market outcomes need to be assigned carefully to avoid conflicts of interest, which can undermine reform objectives …
Siehe auch in >WATERWISE<: A Market-Based Strategy for Sustainable Water Management …
Amid drought, environmentalists want Nestlé to stop water taking in Aberfoyle
Aug 21, 2016 … Environmentalists are urging the Ontario government against renewing one of Nestlé’s water-taking permits in a southwestern Ontario town, saying "water should be for life, not for profit." Wellington Water Watchers says the permit for Nestlé Waters in Aberfoyle, Ont., expired on July 31, but the company has been allowed to keep extracting water from a local well even in the midst of a severe drought. … Documents on a ministry website show Nestlé Canada has three permits to take up to 8.3 million litres of water every day for bottling, while Nestlé Waters Canada — a division of Nestlé Canada — has a half dozen Ontario permits allowing it to take an additional 12 million litres a day. Other bottled water companies with large water-taking permits in Ontario include Gold Mountain Springs at 6.1 million litres a day, Gott Enterprises at 5.8 million litres and St. Joseph Natural Spring Water at 5.5 million litres … Ontario charges companies just $3.71 for every million litres of water, after they pay a permit fee of $750 for low- or medium-risk water takings, or $3,000 for those considered a high risk to cause an adverse environmental impact … The commercial water-taking permits can be valid for up to 10 years, even longer in some cases, and can allow the removal of several million litres a day. The Ministry of Environment has issued multiple water-taking permits for some rivers …Farmers don’t pay fees to take water for agricultural purposes — they take less than 0.5 per cent of water removed — and their exemption does not apply to food processing, beverage manufacturing, wine-making or water-bottling.
‘Climate change is water change’ — why the Colorado River system is headed for major trouble
2016 August 19 There’s good news and bad news for the drought-stricken Colorado River system, according to projections just released in a new federal report from the Bureau of Reclamation, manager of dams, powerplants and canals. The report predicts that Lake Mead — the river system’s largest reservoir, supplying water to millions of people in Nevada, Arizona, California and Mexico — will narrowly escape a shortage declaration next year. But a shortage is looking imminent in 2018, and water experts are growing ever more worried about the river system’s future … In 2012, the U.S. and Mexico entered into an agreement known as Minute 319, a cooperative water management plan under which Mexico has been storing water in Lake Mead to help bolster the reservoir’s falling water levels. Under the agreement, Mexico agreed to take part in both surpluses and shortages as they’re declared for the reservoir. The agreement is set to expire next year, but officials have already opened negotiations to potentially extend it … For the past 15 years, a combination of precipitation declines and unusually high temperatures have helped fuel the region’s ongoing drought … These changes are “clearly climate change at work … Climate change is water change. This is the primary way by which we tiny little humans are going to get to feel the impacts of climate change. The water cycles will change” … Ultimately whatever solutions are adopted in the future, experts agree that they must be a collaborative effort among all the beneficiaries of the Colorado River system. “The sort of geopolitical reality of the Colorado River is that we’re all in it together … all water users and all jurisdictions are going to have to work together to ensure that our water supply is stabilized and our uses don’t exceed what this river has to give.”
In California, Who Owns the Water?
Aug. 19, 2016 …. Santa Barbara County may be one of the wealthiest areas in California but when it comes to water, the residents are just like anyone else in the state — wondering if the day will come when nothing flows out of the tap … when the county’s Goleta Water District discovered that a neighboring ranch was planning on drawing water out of its underground aquifers to benefit a celebrity enclave, things got testy … This is because the district conducted a geographic study in 2008 to determine whether the bedrock containing its groundwater is linked through crevices to Slippery Rock Ranch three miles away … Now the two sides are locked in a court battle to determine whether the district can lay claim to water that hasn’t yet traveled downhill to its coffers … As lakes and downward mountain streams have dried up, the hottest commodity in California is water. Hundreds of farms in the central part of the state have withered and died as traditional water supplies have disappeared and farmers lack the money to buy any on the open market … A city’s compliance with the state’s 20 percent water cutback mandate is measured by how many gallons each person uses … The water rights issue was debated for two years before the district filed a lawsuit in state court on Feb. 13, 2015, seeking an injunction against any further giveaways or sales to outside entities … "Slippery Rock Ranch is unlawfully seeking to exploit public water resources for private gain … We reluctantly had to file the lawsuit to protect the integrity of the groundwater basin and the watershed for the Goleta community." Slippery Rock responded with a lawsuit of its own on Jan. 22, 2016, seeking a judgment establishing its private water rights. The case is set for trial Aug. 31 and will be decided by a judge … Goleta’s water rights to its own underground basin were litigated in 1944 when the district was first formed and again in 1989 when the district sued other entities who had laid claim to its groundwater. In the 1989 case, a judgment named several parties who could take water for their own use and one that could sell it. The current district lawsuit claims that the 1989 case also gave Goleta rights to Slippery Rock’s water because of connecting bedrock, but this assertion is disputed by the ranch which says it was never a party to that original case …"It’s inexcusable for the Goleta Water District to be squandering ratepayers‘ money on frivolous litigation. Asserting that water on private property belongs to the district is audacious and not grounded in fact or law. They purchased water from Slippery Rock Ranch in the past and only initiated litigation after negotiations for purchasing more water broke down. How did water that they had been negotiating to buy suddenly become theirs?"
There is a Water-Energy Nexus. But It’s Not What You Think.
August 12, 2016 … researchers at UC-Davis confirmed what a lot of us already know—that saving water saves energy. The analysis from the UC-Davis Center for Water-Energy Efficiency found that California’s mandatory 25 percent reduction in urban water use, which was adopted in May 2015 due to the ongoing severe drought, resulted in significant energy and greenhouse gas savings. From June 2015 to February 2016, the electricity saved by reducing urban water use is estimated to have been nearly 922 gigawatt-hours. Because electricity production oftentimes relies on fossil fuels like coal and natural gas, this energy savings also significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions—similar in scale to taking almost 50,000 cars off the road! Saving water saves energy because of the large amount of energy needed to extract, transport, treat, and distribute water to our homes and businesses. Still more energy is needed to collect and treat the wastewater that then comes from our sinks, showers, toilets, clothes washers, and other sources. This energy use is referred to as embedded energy. In California, the embedded energy in water can be quite large, especially for regions like Southern California, which rely heavily on imported water supplies from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay Delta and the Colorado River … Still-Strong Nexus: High efficiency clothes washers save both water and energy on-site, along with energy embedded off-site by the local water supplier and sanitation agency – together, more than enough savings to justify efficiency upgrades … There are more than enough reasons to save water in California, now and in the future, without claiming more energy and greenhouse gas reductions than such water savings are likely to achieve.
State Supreme Court sides with Southern California in epic water war over delta islands
July 15, 2016 The state Supreme Court has cleared the way for Southern California’s powerful Metropolitan Water District to buy five islands at the epicenter of the delta’s water system … Some officials and environmentalists in Northern California had fought to halt the sale, worried about what the MWD planned to do with the land. The agency has said it might use some of the land to provide access for the construction of a proposed delta tunnel system, a controversial project some oppose amid California’s five-year drought. A cohort of counties, water agencies and environmental advocacy groups had mounted a series of legal challenges aimed at postponing the sale. But the high court on Thursday turned those back … MWD officials said … that they still face several lawsuits connected to the island purchase. … The California Environmental Quality Act lawsuits seek to unwind the deal and ultimately force MWD to give the islands back to Delta Wetlands Properties … It could be months or even years until all the legal challenges to the purchase are resolved …
Planning for California’s Water Future
Jul. 14, 2016 California’s highly engineered water system struggles to serve its 39 million people and the environment. But there a numerous things we can do to better plan for the future, writes Mark Cowin, director of the Department of Water Resources … All the dams, pumps, aqueducts – and rules and laws – arise from 200 years of human engineering in the Golden State. Our forebears designed these projects for the sole benefit of a few million people, and today we struggle to adapt them to the support of threatened fish and wildlife and 39 million people. While we depend on this infrastructure not just to survive but thrive, some of it is undeniably outdated, and sometimes harmful. We cannot undo most of the environmental damage of our water development, but we can ameliorate it. We must face the reality of this engineered system and move forward with practical solutions that accept what we cannot change and improve where we can. We need infrastructure and laws that support California’s natural ecosystems and human structures for future generations … We also can improve the movement of water among voluntary buyers and sellers. If we can assure that the environment and local communities are protected, a water market is one of the best tools for getting water to places of highest need. The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act, enacted in 2014, puts us on course to eliminate overdraft of crucial groundwater supplies. Restoring some of our lost natural habitat should bolster populations of many species. And our aging infrastructure can be made more efficient and protective of the environment with technology including fish ladders, fish screens, new points of diversion, and devices that allow dam operators to release deep, cool water for fish downstream. In some places, like the Klamath River, dams should be dismantled entirely. It serves little purpose to question decisions made 100 years ago. Scientific understanding of California’s environment has advanced more rapidly than California’s aging water infrastructure. But there’s much we can do in terms of how we live, invest and manage our infrastructure that would allow us to leave more reliable and resilient water systems to the next generation.
Water rulings a blow to New Mexico
July 12, 2016 – The nation’s highest court will likely have to settle a dispute between Texas and New Mexico over management of water from the Rio Grande. Officials in both states have been waiting for nearly a year for a recommendation on the handling of the case that could dramatically curb groundwater pumping in some of New Mexico’s most fertile valleys and force the state to pay as much as $1 billion in damages … Texas sued in 2013, claiming New Mexico failed to deliver water as required under a decades-old compact involving the river that serves more than 6 million people in several major cities and irrigates more than 3,100 square miles of farmland in the U.S. and Mexico. Groundwater wells drilled over the decades in Doña Ana County have been a focal point of Texas‘ concerns … The parties have a chance to respond to the special master before the Supreme Court weighs in on what is the latest legal battle over water to pit states against one another. Connecticut and Massachusetts, Nebraska and Wyoming, and New York and New Jersey all have been embroiled in water disputes over the decades … More than a decade ago, officials in Texas made claims about water shortages under the compact. Irrigation districts that serve farmers on both sides of the border reached the 2008 operating agreement with the federal government that shared the burdens of drought, while ensuring everyone received water allotments. Local water managers say the agreement worked even during the driest of times, but King insisted it was more beneficial to Texas and sued over his concerns, setting the stage for Texas to take its complaints to the U.S. Supreme Court … In his report, the special master suggested New Mexico has a “stunted interpretation” of the compact and that the state may not divert or intercept water it’s required to deliver downstream. The Rio Grande stretches from southern Colorado, through New Mexico and Texas and into Mexico. In recent years, stretches of the river have gone dry in New Mexico and flows often don’t reach the Gulf of Mexico.
160908 Granlund New England Drought
160916 Anupama kaveri_water_dispute
Two dead in water riots in India’s Silicon Valley
September 14, 2016 Relative calm has been restored to the Indian city of Bangalore following the deaths of two men amid riots over an ongoing water dispute. Prime Minister Narendra Modi appealed to protesters to exercise restraint and follow the law as a heavy paramilitary presence was deployed … Protests began earlier this week over a water sharing deal between the Indian states of Karnataka and neighboring Tamil Nadu … One demonstrator was shot dead by police … Another died in hospital following injuries sustained from a fall while fleeing police during Monday’s clashes … Tamil Nadu claims it is not receiving enough water and blames Karnataka for holding it in its reservoirs … After rumblings of unrest, the Supreme Court … reduced the level of water that had to be released by Karnataka to 12,000 cubic feet of water per second each day until September 30 … State ministers held emergency meetings Tuesday after demonstrators vandalized shops and set fire to more than 100 cars, buses and trucks in Bangalore … is India’s original tech hub, home to campuses of many Indian and US tech giants, including Infosys, Microsoft and Google. Thousands of police were deployed in the city in an attempt to regain control, while authorities banned large gatherings and imposed a curfew in several areas …
Karnataka will urge SC to limit water release to 10,000 cusecs a day
Sep 11, 2016 The supervisory panel, authorized by the Supreme Court to assess the ground reality of water availability in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, will commence its hearings … Law minister TB Jayachandra … told the media the government will impress upon the two bodies about the water crisis in Karnataka and its inability to release 15,000 cusecs of water for 10 days … the government expects the Centre to intervene and resolve the 200-year-old dispute. "Be it Prime Minister Modi or Bharti, either can intervene and try to resolve the matter," … On chief minister Siddaramaiah’s letter to the PM … "Over the past 100 years, one way or other, injustice has been meted out to Karnataka. Karnataka could have built a balancing reservoir at Mekedatu and a hydroelectricity station at Shivansamudra. Similarly, Tamil Nadu could have constructed a dam at Hogenakkal to store more water. Now, if the Centre does not intervene, it will be difficult to resolve the crisis" …
Sep 7, 2016 Tamil Nadu gets Cauvery water; Karnataka simmers amid protests …
Sep 06, 2016 Cauvery water dispute: Protests erupt in Karnataka over SC’s order …
India’s water crisis: 8 liters for 7 days, for drinking and all other needs
21 Aug, 2016 … People in Indian states which were once agricultural leaders in the country, now have to pay for water delivered from other regions … The current drastic situation has been caused by a number of reasons, locals believe. They’ve been citing too many people living in the same area, little rain and harvesting revolution where "people ruined the natural cycle" by chopping down forests and reversing river flows as the main causes. The monsoon has been late for the past two years, and all the water from the reservoirs has been used up. When the rains finally arrived in 2015, they were too scarce to provide people in the region with water. In 2016, the monsoon season was late again. The people in India are one of the first to experience a crisis which within 15 years will affect everyone on the planet, according to scientists‘ warnings. And it might be the most devastating one humankind has ever faced.
Riverine Neighbourhood: Hydro-politics in South Asia
12.09.2016 … Flowing rivers are the largest renewable water resource as well as a crucible for both humans and aquatic ecosystem … Since the age of industrialization, humans have increasingly exerted a pervasive influence on water resources. Rivers in particular have drawn humans to monumental engineering interventions such as dams and barrages often as chest-thumping dominance and seldom as an enduring bond between man and nature. ‘Hydro-politics’ or water politics is not a popular expression among water practitioners. In using hydro-politics, the book does not in any way negate hydro-cooperation rather the chapters argue that cooperation is hydro-politics. Since no water dispute, as history tells, has almost ever led to war, states have to ensure that sensible hydro-politics prevails so that the possibilities of water wars are unlikely in the future. Transboundary rivers link its riparians in a complex network of environmental, economic and security interdependencies. Cooperation among South Asian riparians is undoubtedly high but that does not mean the absence of competing claims for water. Thus water will remain deeply political. Often water agreements are not always about water. History and hegemony play an important role in understanding the strategic interaction among riparian states and in the contextual framework under what circumstances politics interfere with cooperation or whether sharing of water acts as a neutralising factor in difficult political situations … Contents … South Asia’s Water Security … The Importance of Water Regimes, The Dynamics of River Treaties, South Asia: A Riverine Region … Himalayan Hydrology … Climate Change and Water Resources, Glaciology and the Indus River System … Himalayan Hydro-politics, Ganga Basin and Regional Cooperation … India-Pakistan and the Waters of the Indus … China and India: Hydropowers in South Asia … Towards Water Dialogue … Hydrological Scenarios: the Shape of things in 2030, The Way Forward …
WMO/GWP Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP).
Handbook of Drought Indicators and Indices
18 August 2016 The Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP), which is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Global Water Partnership (GWP) and some 30 other partners, has officially released the “Handbook of Drought Indicators and Indices” on the sidelines of the African Drought Conference, which is taking place here from 15 to 19 August. “The Handbook addresses the needs of practitioners and policymakers, and is not an academic paper” … The purpose of the handbook is to present some of the most commonly used drought indicators and indices that are being applied across drought-prone regions.” The goal is to advance monitoring, early-warning and information-delivery systems in support of risk-based drought management policies and preparedness plans. These concepts and indicators and indices are outlined in the Handbook, which is a “living document” that will evolve and integrate new indicators and indices as they come to light and are applied in the future …
Danke für diesen Hinweis nach Holm bei Hamburg! J.B.
A Market-Based Strategy for Sustainable Water Management
August 23, 2016 Australia is one of the driest inhabited places on Earth. Yet nearly two-thirds of the country’s land area is devoted to agriculture, generating 93 percent of the domestic food supply. The country is only able to sustain this level of food production through irrigation and an active water market—a system in which water-use entitlements can be bought and sold and water can be transferred from one user to another. The system is working for farmers, but Australia is still trying to figure out how to meet the needs of one specific water user—nature. One potential solution to balance the water needs of people and nature, though, may lie with the power of impact investment … to increase water supplies, such as large reservoirs that store river water, canals that import water from distant sources and wells that go deeper into our aquifers. But we can no longer build our way out of water scarcity—the cost of new infrastructure remains out of reach for many communities, and there are no new supplies to tap. Water markets have proven immensely effective in many regions—from Australia to the western United States—for stimulating water conservation and enabling the transfer of saved water to other users who need more. By making water a tradeable asset, the system rewards those who can save some water and make it available to others. Furthermore, the cost of providing water to new users through markets is far less than the cost of infrastructure-based approaches and further damage to the environment can be averted … Water markets can be especially effective when implemented in areas where water is mainly consumed for irrigation …
zum BEZUGSDOKUMENT: Water Share Report + Executive Summary August 2016
Shaping the future of energy
13 July 2016 More than six months after the Paris climate talks concluded with a historic agreement, the implications for the energy sector are becoming clearer. While energy policymakers continue to have different priorities and pressures, they increasingly have the same broad goals: meet the energy needs of their citizens today while charting a course towards a more sustainable future. But every state will travel a different path towards sustainability, and many factors beyond the imperative for decarbonisation will shape the energy sector in the decades ahead … Other technologies seem to have a much brighter future. Solar power and wind power, of course, have seen their costs drop rapidly over the past decade, allowing them to become increasingly price competitive in some locations even without government support. This trend is very likely to continue in the years ahead … solar and wind power will continue to grow rapidly, forming the twin pillars of global renewable energy production in the years to come … Different ways of storing energy will be another boom sector, from fuel cells to lithium-air batteries, and perhaps even more long-term ideas such as hydrogen or thermal storage … Three key energy investment trends are likely to continue for the foreseeable future. First, the global trade in energy products will eventually peak and drop off significantly. As new geographies of energy production are developed, with distributed generation and smart electrical grids, the massive transport of fuels over long distances by pipeline or truck or boat will gradually be phased out … Second, economic growth will decouple from carbon use and even from energy use … the world has begun to focus on decarbonisation … The third trend is the increasing primacy of regulation and policy in shaping energy investments … The decisions of energy innovators and investors are going to be driven as much by expectations of what the policy environment will look like as what the pricing environment will be … In terms of energy investment, there will be a long-term challenge for governments to provide infrastructure to match future supply and demand patterns … With regard to geopolitics, it will need to be taken into account that pushing towards a different energy future will result in winners and losers … it will be important to keep a close watch on these differences and take action to reduce the difficulties for those that might be left behind, internationally and within Europe. This responsiveness to the impacts of groups and on individual citizens will mean taking action at the right level of governance, building on international frameworks, national and continental plans, and local capacities to put plans into action … Cities and regions will continue to be more and more networked across borders. This can be seen most clearly in North America where cities and states are cooperating across borders on climate action, stepping into the relative vacuum left by their slow-acting national governments. The global energy scene is likely to become yet more complicated in the years ahead. Navigating this complexity need not require the creation of detailed plans set in stone, but will require a solid understanding of the key trends at play, and a capacity to shape and adapt to these trends in the pursuit of clearly defined long term goals.
Why Climate Change Is an Education Issue
JUL 4, 2016 – Climate change affects us all, but we still are not acting as quickly as we should to address its causes, mitigate the damage, and adapt to its effects. Many people don’t understand the risks climate change poses to global economic and social structures. And, sadly, many who do understand are dismissive of the far-reaching benefits a global shift to sustainability and clean energy would bring about. According to a recent Pew study, seven out of ten Americans classified as political independents were not very concerned that climate change would hurt them. Worse still, Yale University researchers recently found that 40% of adults worldwide have never even heard of climate change. In some developing countries, such as India, that figure climbs to 65% … Still, many people insist that implementing measures to mitigate the effects of climate change is too costly to our current way of life. According to the Pew study, almost seven out of ten people believe that, given the limitations of technology, they would have to make major lifestyle changes. This does not have to be the case, and education can challenge the kind of skepticism that forecloses opportunities for climate-smart living … education furnishes the technical knowledge needed to build a better future through innovation – one that includes clean and safe energy, sustainable agriculture, and smarter cities. Broadening access to education would lead to more homegrown innovation – entrepreneurs spotting opportunities to address local problems. Globally, we cannot rely on knowledge centers such as Silicon Valley or Oxford to develop a silver bullet to the climate problem. Solutions may come from tech hubs, but they will also come from villages and developing cities, from farmers and manufactures with vastly different perspectives on the world around them. And this will create a virtuous cycle. It is easier for educated people to migrate and integrate into new societies, sharing the knowledge they’ve brought with them. Fortunately, younger generations today are better educated and more committed to reducing their own carbon footprint than previous generations were. They are leading the way and forcing us all to reconsider our own actions. But we must broaden the availability of education worldwide to ensure that their efforts are not in vain … Addressing the dangers of climate change is not only an existential imperative; it is also an opportunity to move toward a cleaner, more productive, and fairer path of development. Only an educated global society can take the decisive action needed to get us there.
A Guide to Current:LA Water, the Biennial Bringing Art to 16 Locations Across the City
July 15, 2016 … This summer, Los Angeles’ riverbanks and water-related sites will blossom to life despite the drought. Current:LA Water, a citywide public art biennial made by possible by a grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies Public Art Challenge, is seeking to uncover the complexities inherent in water (or the lack of them) on urban life.
Current: LA, A New Public Art Biennial
it is about so much more than just the river. There’s water infrastructure throughout the city from the Port of L.A. (San Pedro) to the L.A. wetlands of Ballona Creek, to Hansen Dam in the north), and of course, the coast …Water as an issue is of course more than fraught with economic, political, historical thorns, but Current:LA seizes the opportunity for public education and discourse that the biennial represents.
… und dann war da noch:
In den Ortsnamen ist das Wasser allgegenwärtig
09.08.2016 Wie wichtig das Wasser ist, zeigt sich auch darin, wie die Menschen ihre Landschaft benennen: Bäche, Seen, aber auch feuchte Gebiete spielen in den Ortsnamen eine zentrale Rolle … Weil sie erstens für die Menschen als Lebensgrundlage zentral sind und ihnen zweitens in der Landschaft Orientierung bieten …
Video: Eine Stadt taucht nach 30 Jahren wieder aus dem Wasser auf …
08.09.2016 Nach seiner Gründung im Jahr 1921, blühte der Tourismus in Villa Epecuén auf. Grund war der nahegelegene Salzsee Lago Epecuén und die therapeutische Wirkung des Wassers. Als der See zu verlanden drohte, baute die Region einen Kanal. Doch der besiegelte den Untergang der Stadt … Erst die seit einigen Jahren herrschende Trockenperiode brachte die versunkene Stadt jetzt wieder zum Vorschein …
Astronomy Picture of the Day
Beste Grüße von der Elbe!