Massenbach-Letter: NEWS 28/08/15

Massenbach-Letter. News

· Kissinger on Germany’s Role in New European Security Environment * Berlin Security Conference 2015 – Invitation and Programme (Guest Victoria Nuland, U.S. Dep. Of State)

· Cicero: Modernisierung des Islams: Religionen zivilisieren sich nicht von selbst*Tomasi (Vatikan): Muslimische Migranten als Herausforderung* Ausgeprägte Gleichgültigkeit gegenüber der Christenverfolgung im Nahen Osten*Militärische Präsenz der Vereinten Nationen zeigen* Vucic(Serbia) to meeting of 30 world leaders on ISIS at the invitation of U.S. President Barack Obama

· U.S., Turkey to launch ‚comprehensive‘ anti-Islamic State operation

· Russia to Strengthen Trade Ties With Middle East at MAKS 2015 * Kings of both Saudi Arabia and Jordan will visit the expo on the opening day on August 25

· Militants Blow Up Gas Pipeline in Southeast Turkey

· U.S. Department of State: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1977–1980, Volume XVIII, Middle East Region; Arabian Peninsula

· Early-Stage Breast Condition May Not Require Cancer Treatment

· WDR entfernt "Hart aber fair"-Sendung aus Mediathek

Alert: Deutschland setzt Dublin-Regeln für Syrer aus ( )

Massenbach* In memoriam: Egon Bahr- Egon Bahr 1950 über die CDU*

Soziales Gewissen einer Partei

von Egon Bahr

Wie Egon Bahr 1950 als Tagesspiegel-Reporter vom Arbeitnehmerkongress der CDU berichtete. Hier dokumentiert zur Erinnerung an den verstorbenen SPD-Politiker.

Egon Bahr (1922 – 2015) arbeitete vor seiner Politiker-Laufbahn als Journalist. Unter anderem beim Tagesspiegel. – Foto: Wikipedia/Creative Commons/Bundesarchiv, B 145 Bild-F030521-0007 / Reineke / CC-BY-SA

"Manches Wort, das man hörte, hätte auch in einer SPD-Versammlung gesprochen werden können." In den Fünfzigerjahren schrieb Egon Bahr als Journalist für den Tagesspiegel. Aus Bonn und aus Berlin. Zur Erinnerung an den am 20. August 2015 im Alter von 93 Jahren verstorbenen SPD-Politiker, Gestalter der deutschen Ostpolitik und Vertrauten Willy Brandts dokumentieren wir hier einen zeitgeschichtlich hochinteressanten Bericht Bahrs, der am 24. November 1950 unter der Überschrift "Soziales Gewissen einer Partei" im Tagesspiegel erschien. Hier die Tagesspiegel-Seite von 1950 als PDF.

Der Essener Kongreß der christlich-demokratischen Arbeitnehmerschaft hat ein Gesicht der CDU gezeigt, wie es auf dem Parteitag in Goslar kaum wahrnehmbar gewesen ist. In Essen fühlte man sich politisch und geistig der sowjetischen Zone näher als in Goslar. Die Mahnung der CDU-Sozialausschüsse an den deutschen Gewerkschaftsbund, daß jede Abweichung von der parteipolitischen und religiösen Neutralität die Einheit der Gewerkschaftsbewegung gefährden müsse, die Entwicklung eines Programms für die Neuordnung der Wirtschaft und die Forderung auf eine gemeinsame Arbeitsbasis der beiden größten deutschen Parteien gaben dem Essener Kongreß einen stärkeren politischen Akzent, als zu erwarten war. Manches Wort, das man hörte, hätte auch in einer SPD-Versammlung gesprochen werden können.

Doch blieb es nicht bei der Kritik. Der Arbeitsminister von Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Wirsching, entwickelte ein zwar sozialistisches, aber unmarxistisches Wirtschaftsprogramm, das für die Entscheidungen über die Neuordnung der Wirtschaft und über das Mitbestimmungsrecht der Arbeitnehmer richtungweisend werden kann. Gegen den Marxismus grenzte Wirsching seinen Standpunkt durch die Maxime ab: der Mensch und seine Bedürfnisse müssen im Mittelpunkt der Wirtschaft stehen; gegen den dogmatischen Sozialismus durch die These: persönliche Freiheit ist ebenso wichtig wie soziale Gerechtigkeit. Wirsching verlangte auf evolutionärem Wege eine Wandlung der überkommenen Wirtschaftsordnung, zumal sich gezeigt habe, daß auch die freie Marktwirtschaft nicht ohne gewisse Lenkung auskommen könne.

"Manches Wort, das man hörte, hätte auch in einer SPD-Versammlung gesprochen werden können." Was Egon Bahr 1950 im Tagesspiegel über die CDU schrieb. – Screenshot: Tsp

Ergänzt man diese Forderungen durch die mit starkem Beifall aufgenommene Äußerung Kaisers, daß die Sozialpolitik nicht ein lästiges Anhängsel der Marktwirtschaft sein dürfe, so ergibt sich eine Opposition gegen den augenblicklichen Kurs der CDU – eine Opposition, welche die innere Problematik dieser Partei zeigt. Die Warnung an den Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbund, die Einheit der Gewerkschaften nicht durch die Preisgabe einer absoluten Neutralität zu gefährden, bekam besonderes Gewicht durch die Anwesenheit ausländischer Gäste, unter denen sich auch die Präsidenten der christlichen Gewerkschaften Frankreichs und Belgiens, Gaston Tessier und August Cool, befanden.

Einen Tagesspiegel-Gastbeitrag von Egon Bahr über Bonn und Berlin aus dem Jahr 2014 lesen Sie hier. Einen Bericht von Wolfgang Prosinger über dessen letzte Begegnung mit Egon Bahr kurz vor dessen Tod lesen Sie hier. Es ging in dem Gespräch um Franz Josef Strauß.

http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/egon-bahr-1950-ueber-die-cdu-soziales-gewissen-einer-partei/12212814.html

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Tomasi: Muslimische Migranten als Herausforderung* Ausgeprägte Gleichgültigkeit gegenüber der Christenverfolgung im Nahen Osten*Militärische Präsenz der Vereinten Nationenzeigen*

Erbischof Silvano Maria Tomasi ist ständiger Vertreter des Heiligen Stuhls bei den Vereinten Nationen.

Die Ankunft von immer mehr muslimischen Flüchtlingen in Europa kann zur Herausforderung für die christliche und demokratische Identität des Kontinents werden. Das sagte Erzbischof Silvano Maria Tomasi am Wochenende im Interview mit Radio Vatikan. Der ständige Vertreter des Heiligen Stuhls bei den Vereinten Nationen in Genf kritisiert eine systematische Politik der Ungleichheit zwischen wirtschaftlich starken und schwachen Ländern. Es gebe einen Willen, diese Ungleichheit beizubehalten.

Neben der politischen Ungleichheit und den multinationalen Beziehungen, die vor allem zum Vorteil der starken Länder arbeiteten, habe die Irak-Invasion 2003 die Situation im Nahen Osten nachhaltig destabilisiert, sodass so viele Menschen nun nach Europa flöhen, so Tomasi. Man müsse das Problem, also die unsichere Lage im Nahen Osten, an der Wurzel packen. Aber als Christ habe man auch die Pflicht, gastfreundlich zu sein. Ganz so einfach sei das aber nicht, gibt Tomasi zu. Man habe eine Pflicht die Flüchtlinge aufzunehmen, aber Europa müsse auch die eigene – nach Tomasi – eine christliche Identität wahren können. „Es gibt muslimische Migranten, die sich mit einem speziellen Problem konfrontiert sehen – sie können die Trennung von Religion und Politik, von Kirche und Staat, wie wir es sagen würden, nicht akzeptieren. Das hat einen direkten Einfluss auf den Integrationsprozess. Und was machen wir da? Wir müssen sagen, dass es Grundwerte gibt, die akzeptiert werden müssen. Dazu gehört die Wahrung des Pluralismus in unserer Gesellschaft, die Trennung von Politik und Religion und die Akzeptanz normaler demokratischer Prozesse, sodass ein friedliches, konstruktives Zusammenleben möglich ist, und die Menschen, die kommen, Teil der Gesellschaft werden und sie bereichern.“

Zudem beklagt Tomasi eine ausgeprägte Gleichgültigkeit gegenüber der Christenverfolgung im Nahen Osten. Abgesehen von Papst Franziskus, der immer wieder an das Leiden erinnere, werde das Geschehen auf internationaler Bühne ignoriert. „Christen sind die am meisten verfolgte religiöse Gruppe in der Welt. Der Westen ist aber gleichgültig gegenüber dem Leiden der Christen. Als ob die Menschenrechte der Christen nicht den gleichen Wert wie andere Menschen hätten. Ich denke, diese Situation ist nicht akzeptabel und wir müssen kontinuierlich darauf pochen, eine öffentliche Meinung hervorzubringen, die es schließlich schafft darauf zu drängen, zu handeln und eine politische Lösung zu finden,“ betont Tomasi.

Konfliktparteien, verschiedene Volksstämme und andere Interessensgruppen an einen Tisch bringen. Nur so könne man das soziale und politische Leben in Ländern wie zum Beispiel Libyen wieder normalisieren. Damit Vereinbarungen eingehalten werden, kann es auch sinnvoll sein, militärische Präsenz der Vereinten Nationen zu zeigen, so Tomasi.

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U.S., Turkey to launch ‚comprehensive‘ anti-Islamic State operation*

Cavusoglu said the operations would also send a message to President Bashar al-Assad and help put pressure on his administration to come to the negotiating table and seek a political solution for Syria’s wider war.

Turkey’s Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu answers a question during an interview with Reuters in Ankara, Turkey, August 24, 2015.

Reuters/Umit Bektas

ANKARA Turkey and the United States will soon launch "comprehensive" air operations to flush Islamic State fighters from a zone in northern Syria bordering Turkey, Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu told Reuters on Monday.

Detailed talks between Washington and Ankara on the plans were completed on Sunday and regional allies including Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Jordan as well as Britain and France may also take part, Cavusoglu said in an interview.

"The technical talks have been concluded, yesterday, and soon we will start this operation, comprehensive operations, against Daesh (Islamic State)," he said.

The United States and Turkey plan to provide air cover for what Washington judges to be moderate Syrian rebels as part of the operations, which aim to flush Islamic State from a rectangle of border territory roughly 80 km (50 miles) long, officials familiar with the plans have said.

Diplomats say cutting Islamic State’s access to the Turkish border, across which it has been able to bring foreign fighters and supplies, could be a game-changer. U.S. jets have already begun air strikes from Turkish bases in advance of the campaign.

Cavusoglu said the operations would also send a message to President Bashar al-Assad and help put pressure on his administration to come to the negotiating table and seek a political solution for Syria’s wider war.

Ankara has long argued that lasting peace in Syria can only be achieved with Assad’s departure. U.S. officials, meanwhile, have made clear that the focus of the coalition operations will be squarely on pushing back Islamic State.

"Our aim should be eradicating Daesh from both Syria and Iraq, otherwise you cannot bring stability and security," said Cavusoglu, using another name for Islamic State. "But eliminating the root causes of the situation (in Syria) is also essential, which is the regime of course."

A Pentagon spokesman said U.S. and Turkish military officials had held talks on Sunday to work out the tactical details of integrating Turkish combat aircraft into the air campaign against Islamic State.

"We’re looking forward in the near future to welcoming Turkey into our combined air operations center," Navy Captain Jeff Davis said in Washington.

Cavusoglu said Syrian Kurdish PYD militia forces, which have proved a useful ally on the ground for Washington as it launched air strikes on Islamic State elsewhere in Syria, would not have a role in the "safe zone" that the joint operations aim to create, unless they changed their policies.

Ankara is concerned that the PYD and its allies aim to unite Kurdish cantons in northern Syria and fear those ambitions will stoke separatist sentiment among its own Kurds.

"Yes, the PYD has been fighting Daesh … But the PYD is not fighting for the territorial integrity or political unity of Syria. This is unacceptable," Cavusoglu said.

"We prefer that the moderate opposition forces actually control the safe zone, or Daesh-free areas, in the northern part of Syria, not the PYD, unless they change their policies radically in that sense."

Both Ankara and Washington had given this message directly to the PYD, he said.

PKK STRIKES TO CONTINUE

Turkey’s relations with the PYD, whose forces control territory on the eastern fringe of the proposed safe zone, are complicated by what officials in Ankara say are the group’s deep ties with the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), which has fought an insurgency against Turkey for three decades.

Cavusoglu said Turkey’s military operations against PKK targets in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey, where Ankara has been carrying out air strikes over the past month, would continue until the group laid down its weapons.

The government says it launched the action against the PKK in response to an escalation in attacks on members of Turkish security forces. Cavusoglu said 61 soldiers and police officers had been killed by the group in recent months.

Critics say Turkey is using what it calls its "synchronized war on terror", including its greater role in the U.S.-led coalition against Islamic State, as a cover to attack the PKK and try to stem Kurdish political and territorial ambitions. Ankara denies those accusations.

Diplomatic sources told Reuters last Friday that a second group of rebel fighters trained in Turkey by the U.S.-led coalition could be deployed to Syria within weeks as part of the strategy to push back the Islamic State.

The al Qaeda-linked Nusra Front said late last month it had detained some of a first group of less than 60 rebels, weeks after they were deployed, and warned others to abandon the program, highlighting their vulnerability.

"In the second group we have around 100 (fighters)," Cavusoglu said, but made clear that the ground forces were only part of the strategy.

"The train and equip program (alone) will not be enough to fight Daesh, that is why we agreed with the United States to start joint operations soon," he said.

Asked whether Iran’s improving relations with West in the wake of its nuclear deal could help the prospects of a diplomatic solution in Syria, Cavusoglu was cautious.

"We are very happy to see that Iran has been normalizing its diplomatic ties with many Western countries … Iran has better dialogue with many Western countries and that is what Turkey fully supports," he said, noting Britain’s reopening on Sunday of its embassy in Tehran.

"But the situation in Syria, or in the region including Yemen and Iraq, is totally different to the nuclear deal. What we expect from Iran is a more constructive role in Syria and Iraq, and in Yemen," Cavusoglu said.

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Russia to Strengthen Trade Ties With Middle East at MAKS 2015 * Kings of both Saudi Arabia and Jordan will visit the expo on the opening day on August 25*

Russian media has confirmed that kings of both Saudi Arabia and Jordan will visit the expo on the opening day on August 25. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia is expected to strike a major trade deal at MAKS 2015 in Russia, in a deal to purchase cutting-edge Russian Ka-52K combat helicopters, defense analyst believes…

Russian President Vladimir Putin will meet with King Abdullah II of Jordan on Tuesday to discuss various bilateral and international issues, the Kremlin press service said Monday.

"On August 25, a meeting will take place between President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin and c, who will travel to Russia on a working visit at the invitation of the Russian president," the press service said in a statement. Joint projects, including plans to build Jordan’s first nuclear power plant, will be discussed.

"The leaders will also exchange views on key regional and international issues, including countering the Islamic State terrorist group, settlement of the Syrian conflict, the Middle East peace process," the statement reads.

http://sputniknews.com/russia/20150824/1026111407.html

http://sputniknews.com/politics/20150824/1026118888.html

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Pressefreiheit vom 22.08.2015

WDR entfernt "Hart aber fair"-Sendung aus Mediathek

Der WDR hat eine in die Kritik geratene "Hart aber fair"-Sendung mit Frank Plasberg ein knappes halbes Jahr nach der Ausstrahlung aus der ARD-Mediathek und von der Sendungsseite entfernt.

Köln (dpa) – Die Sendung "Nieder mit den Ampelmännchen" vom 2. März 2015 "war – entgegen den Absichten der Redaktion – von Frauenverbänden und Gleichstellungsbeauftragten als unseriös empfunden worden und hatte zu Programmbeschwerden und zahlreichen Protestbriefen geführt", teilte der WDR am Samstag der Deutschen-Presseagentur mit. Zuvor berichtete die "Bild"-Zeitung (Samstag) darüber.

"Zwar hat sie nicht gegen die Programmrichtlinien verstoßen, aber die Redaktion musste zur Kenntnis nehmen, dass sie offenbar viele Frauen anders empfunden haben, als sie gemeint war", erklärte der WDR.

Beiträge aus der Mediathek herauszunehmen, sei kein ungewöhnlicher Vorgang, sondern könne aus unterschiedlichen Gründen praktiziert werden, etwa wenn sich wesentliche Sachverhalte änderten. Das sei nicht zu verwechseln mit der grundsätzlichen Sperrung eines Beitrags, zum Beispiel aus juristischen Gründen.

http://www.newsroom.de/news/detail/%24IWEQLVHPNTFJ

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Policy= res publica

Freudenberg-Pilster* Early-Stage Breast Condition May Not Require Cancer Treatment*

As many as 60,000 American women each year are told they have a very early stage of breast cancer — Stage 0, as it is commonly known — a possible precursor to what could be a deadly tumor. And almost every one of the women has either a lumpectomy or a mastectomy, and often a double mastectomy, removing a healthy breast as well.

Yet it now appears that treatment may make no difference in their outcomes. Patients with this condition had close to the same likelihood of dying of breast cancer as women in the general population, and the few who died did so despite treatment, not for lack of it, researchers reported Thursday in JAMA Oncology.

Their conclusions were based on the most extensive collection of data ever analyzed on the condition, known as ductal carcinoma in situ, or D.C.I.S.: 100,000 women followed for 20 years. The findings are likely to fan debate about whether tens of thousands of patients are undergoing unnecessary and sometimes disfiguring treatments for premalignant conditions that are unlikely to develop into life-threatening cancers.

Diagnoses of D.C.I.S., involving abnormal cells confined to the milk ducts of the breast, have soared in recent decades. They now account for as much as a quarter of cancer diagnoses made with mammography, as radiologists find smaller and smaller lesions. But the new data on outcomes raises provocative questions: Is D.C.I.S. cancer, a precursor to the disease or just a risk factor for some women? Is there any reason for most patients with the diagnosis to receive brutal therapies? If treatment does not make a difference, should women even be told they have the condition?

Dr. Otis W. Brawley, chief medical officer at the American Cancer Society, said he was not ready to abandon treatment until a large clinical trial is done that randomly assigns women to receive mastectomies, lumpectomies or no treatment for D.C.I.S., and that shows treatment is unnecessary for most patients. But Dr. Brawley, who was not involved in the study, also said he had no doubt that treatment had been excessive.

“In medicine, we have a tendency to get too enthusiastic about a technique and overuse it,” Dr. Brawley said. “This has happened with the treatment of D.C.I.S.”

About half the 100,000 patients in the database the researchers used, from a national cancer registry, had lumpectomies, and nearly all the rest had mastectomies, the new study found. Their chance of dying of breast cancer in the two decades after treatment was 3.3 percent, no matter which procedure they had, about the same as an average woman’s chance of dying of breast cancer, said Dr. Laura J. Esserman, a breast cancer surgeon and researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who wrote an editorial accompanying the study.

The data showed that some patients were at higher risk: those younger than 40, black women, and those whose abnormal cells had molecular markers found in advanced cancers with poorer prognoses.

D.C.I.S. has long been regarded as a precursor to potentially deadly invasive cancers, analogous to colon polyps that can turn into colon cancer, said Dr. Steven A. Narod, the lead author of the paper and a researcher at Women’s College Research Institute in Toronto. The treatment strategy has been to get rid of the tiny specks of abnormal breast cells, just as doctors get rid of colon polyps when they see them in a colonoscopy.

But if that understanding of the condition had played out as expected, women who had an entire breast removed, or even both breasts as a sort of double precaution, should have been protected from invasive breast cancer. Instead, the findings showed, they had the same risk as those who had a lumpectomy. Almost no women went untreated, so it is not clear if as a group, they did worse.

But some women who died of breast cancer ended up with the disease throughout their body without ever having it recur in their breast — many, in fact, had no breast because they had had a mastectomy. Those very rare fatal cases of D.C.I.S. followed by fatal breast cancer, Dr. Narod concluded, had most likely already spread at the time of detection. As for the rest, he said, they were never going to spread anyway.

Dr. Esserman said that if deadly breast cancers started out as D.C.I.S., the incidence of invasive breast cancers should have plummeted with rising detection rates. That has not happened, even though in the pre-mammography era, before about 1980, the number of women found to have D.C.I.S. was only in the hundreds. Nearly 240,000 women receive diagnoses of invasive breast cancer each year.

Those facts lead Dr. Narod to a blunt view. After a surgeon has removed the aberrant cells for the biopsy, he said, “I think the best way to treat D.C.I.S. is to do nothing.”

Others drew back from that advice.

Dr. Monica Morrow, chief breast cancer surgeon at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, said it made more sense to view D.C.I.S. as a cancer precursor that should be treated the way it is now, with a lumpectomy or mastectomy. She questioned whether those women who were treated and ended up dying of breast cancer anyway had been misdiagnosed.

In some cases, pathologists look at only a small amount of tumor, Dr. Morrow said, and could have missed areas of invasive cancer. Even the best mastectomy leaves cells behind, she added, which could explain why a small number of women with D.C.I.S. who had mastectomies, even double mastectomies, died of breast cancer.

Dr. Brawley said the new study, by showing which D.C.I.S. patients were at highest risk, would help enormously in defining who might benefit from treatment. It could not show that the high-risk women — young, black or with tumors with ominous molecular markers — were helped by treatment because there were too few of them, and pretty much every one of them was treated. But Dr. Brawley said he would like to see clinical trials that addressed that question, as well as whether the rest of the women with D.C.I.S., 80 percent of them, would be fine without treatment or with anti-estrogen drugs like tamoxifen or raloxifene that can reduce overall breast cancer risk.

The notion that most women with D.C.I.S. might not need mastectomies or lumpectomies can be agonizing for those, like Therese Taylor of Mississauga, Ontario, who have already gone through such treatment. Four years ago, when she was 51, a doctor sent her for a mammogram, telling her he felt a lump in her right breast. That breast was fine, but it turned out she had D.C.I.S. in her left breast. A surgeon, she said, told her that “it was consistent with cancer” and that she should have a mastectomy.

“I went into a state of shock and fear,” Ms. Taylor said. She had the surgery.

She regrets it. “It takes away your feeling of attractiveness,” she said. “Compared to women who really have cancer, it is nothing. But the mastectomy was for no reason, and that’s why it bothers me.”

But if D.C.I.S. is actually a risk factor for invasive cancer, rather than a precursor, it might be possible to help women reduce their risk, perhaps with hormonal or immunological therapies to change the breast environment, making it less hospitable to cancer cells, Dr. Esserman said.

“As we learn more, that gives us the courage to try something different,” she said.

The stakes in this debate are high. Karuna Jaggar, executive director of Breast Cancer Action, an education and activist organization, said women tended not to appreciate the harms of overtreatment and often overestimated their risk of dying of cancer, making them react with terror.

“Treatment comes with short- and long-term impacts,” Ms. Jaggar said, noting that women who get cancer treatment are less likely to be employed several years later and tend to earn less than before. There are emotional tolls and strains on relationships. And there can be complications from breast cancer surgery, including lymphedema, a permanent pooling of lymphatic fluid in the arm.

“These are not theoretical harms,” Ms. Jaggar said.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/21/health/breast-cancer-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-study.html?emc=edit_na_20150820&nlid=42724716&ref=cta&_r=0

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Politics: From Vision to Action

Barandat* Kissinger on Germany’s Role in New European Security Environment*

Excerpts from interview of former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger by Jacob Heilbrunn, editor of the National Interest.

Heilbrunn: Another country that’s obviously taken a lead role in Europe is Germany—on Ukraine, on Greece—

Kissinger: They don’t really seek that role. The paradox is that seventy years after having defeated German claims to dominating Europe, the victors are now pleading, largely for economic reasons, with Germany to lead Europe. Germany can and should play an important role in the construction of European and international order. But it is not the ideal principal negotiating partner about the security of Europe on a border that is two hundred miles from Stalingrad. The United States has put forward no concept of its own except that Russia will one day join the world community by some automatic act of conversion. Germany’s role is significant, but an American contribution to Ukrainian diplomacy is essential to put the issue into a global context.

Heilbrunn: Is that absence a mistake, then?

Kissinger: If we treat Russia seriously as a great power, we need at an early stage to determine whether their concerns can be reconciled with our necessities. We should explore the possibilities of a status of nonmilitary grouping on the territory between Russia and the existing frontiers of NATO.

The West hesitates to take on the economic recovery of Greece; it’s surely not going to take on Ukraine as a unilateral project. So one should at least examine the possibility of some cooperation between the West and Russia in a militarily nonaligned Ukraine. The Ukraine crisis is turning into a tragedy because it is confusing the long-range interests of global order with the immediate need of restoring Ukrainian identity. I favor an independent Ukraine in its existing borders. I have advocated it from the start of the post-Soviet period. When you read now that Muslim units are fighting on behalf of Ukraine, then the sense of proportion has been lost.

Heilbrunn: That’s a disaster, obviously.

Kissinger: To me, yes. It means that breaking Russia has become an objective; the long-range purpose should be to integrate it.

Heilbrunn: But we have witnessed a return, at least in Washington, DC, of neoconservatives and liberal hawks who are determined to break the back of the Russian government.

Kissinger: Until they face the consequences. The trouble with America’s wars since the end of the Second World War has been the failure to relate strategy to what is possible domestically. The five wars we’ve fought since the end of World War II were all started with great enthusiasm. But the hawks did not prevail at the end. At the end, they were in a minority. We should not engage in international conflicts if, at the beginning, we cannot describe an end, and if we’re not willing to sustain the effort needed to achieve that end.

Heilbrunn: But we seem to recapitulate this over and over again.

Kissinger: Because we refuse to learn from experience. Because it’s essentially done by an ahistorical people. In schools now, they don’t teach history anymore as a sequence of events. They deal with it in terms of themes without context.

Heilbrunn: So they’ve stripped it of all context.

Kissinger: Of what used to be context—they put it in an entirely new context.

Heilbrunn: The kind of book you wrote—your first book, for example—would never pass muster in political science today because it’s not filled with abstract theories. It actually tells a narrative lesson.

Kissinger: That’s why I get attacked from the left and the right—because I don’t fit either of their categories.

Heilbrunn: Speaking of history, what is your assessment of Germany’s role in Europe right now? Are we back to a new German problem, where southern Europe views them as an occupying power, and in Germany itself there are hints of nationalism—I wouldn’t say that it’s an efflorescence.

Kissinger: Well, there are hints. Some groups in Germany, in the group below fifty, sometimes act as if the country that once sought to shape Europe by force now claims the right to reshape it by absolute moral judgment. It’s unfair to tempt Germany into such a role. It’s easy domestic politics for the countries of southern Europe to blame the Germans rather than themselves. What is the German sin in Greece? The Germans are saying that what is put forward as a bailout perpetuates irresponsibility. They are seeking to define a responsible process of recovery. Considering that their history has made inflation such a nightmare to Germans, I have sympathy for their position. Germany has never in its national history starting in 1871 had to run an international system. From 1871 to 1890, Bismarck conducted a spectacular tour de force that was not sustainable. You can’t have a great policy if it requires a genius in every generation. But from 1890 to the end of the Second World War—nearly a century—Germany was embattled in its perception of the world around it. Britain and France have much more experience in multilateral diplomacy. So I have sympathy for the German dilemma. They can help, they may be decisive in helping, but they need a bigger, more global framework, which we need to contribute.

Heilbrunn: The Atlanticist generation in Germany and the approach it embodied have largely disappeared.

Kissinger: That’s a pity.

Heilbrunn: The younger CDU [Christian Democratic Union] politicians that I’ve met are not that interested in the United States, which is a dramatic shift, since the whole Adenauer policy was based on Westbindung.

Kissinger: It’s partly their fault and partly our fault……

Full text:

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U.S. Outlines Asia-Pacific Maritime Security Strategy

In-Depth Coverage

By Jim Garamone DoD News, Defense Media Activity

WASHINGTON, August 21, 2015 — The United States has spelled out its maritime security strategy so that all nations understand the American position, David Shear, the assistant secretary of defense for Asian-Pacific security affairs, said during a Pentagon news conference today.

The U.S. will continue to use diplomacy, multilateral institutions and continued engagement to protect free and open access to maritime Asia, while focusing on safeguarding the freedom of the seas, deterring conflict and coercion, and promoting adherence to international law and standards, Shear said.

And he reemphasized previous statements by U.S. officials that the United States takes no position over competing claims for land claims in the South China Sea and the East China Sea.

“We have a vested interest in ensuring that the claims are resolved peacefully and without conflict or coercion,” Shear said, adding, “however, there are several trends — including rapid military modernization growing resource demands and territorial maritime disputes — which have the potential to create instability in this vital region.”.

China’s expansion of disputed features and artificial island construction in the Spratly Islands is a concern, he said.

“While land reclamation is not new, and China is not the only claimant to have conducted reclamation, China’s recent activities outweigh other efforts in size, pace and nature,” he said.

DoD Investing in Capabilities in Asia-Pacific

Shear made it clear the United States will maintain the necessary military presence and capabilities to protect U.S. interests and those of allies and partners against potential threats in maritime Asia.

The United States, he said, is strengthening its military capacity in the region to deter conflict and coercion and respond decisively when needed.

“DoD is investing a new cutting-edge capability, deploying our finest maritime capabilities forward, and distributing these capabilities more widely across the region,” he said. As Defense Secretary Ash Carter has said, “the United States will continue to fly, sail and operate wherever international law allows, as U.S. forces do all around the world,” Shear said.

The United States will continue working with allies and partners across the region to build their maritime capacities.

Leveraging Defense Diplomacy

“We’re building greater interoperability and developing more integrated operations with our allies and partners,” he said.

U.S. officials are leveraging defense diplomacy to build greater transparency, reduce the risk of miscalculation or conflict and promote shared maritime rules of the road, Shear said.

U.S. officials are working with Chinese leaders and with regional officials to put risk reduction measures in place, he said. There is already an agreement for ship-to-ship encounters, Shear noted, adding that he hopes to see an agreement for air-to-air encounters by the end of the year.

The United States is working to strengthen regional security institutions and encourage development of an open and effective security architecture, Shear said. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is an increasingly important DoD partner, he said, and the department is working closely with that organization.

“Through these venues, we aim to promote candid conversations about ongoing challenges in the maritime domain and encourage greater information-sharing and cooperative solutions,” he said

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2015/08/mil-150821-afps01.htm?_m=3n%2e002a%2e1502%2ern0ao012lf%2e1dnq

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Berlin Security Conference 2015 – Invitation and Programme

08-19-15 Kissinger Interview.pdf
2015-asia-pacific-maritime-security-strategy.pdf

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