Joerg Barandat: WATERINTAKE 11-2014



September / Oktober


Building sustainable trans-boundary

cooperation in a complex river basin

The Nile Basin Development Forum (NBDF) is a bi-annual event organized by the Nile Basin Initiative … provides the platform for policy makers, researchers, academia, business and local communities for bringing forth and exchange ideas, research findings, novel practices and policies on the River Nile … The 2014 NBDF theme … is dedicated to transboundary cooperation among the Nile riparian countries in a river basin that is facing growing pressures in the midst of uncertain climate change impacts … Sub-themes: Transboundary Water Governance, Benefits of Cooperation and Risks of Non-Cooperation, Knowledge Systems and epistemic communities, Building Partnerships, Financing Transboundary Cooperation, Building Resilience through Transboundary Cooperation, Hydro-diplomacy in Transboundary Cooperation, Water-Energy-Food Nexus …


Dorothy Kaggwa, Benefits of Cooperation

… Willingness to participate in cooperation depends on how the different users perceive the benefits of cooperation: the gains from cooperation must far exceed the risk of non cooperation; Benefits of and risks of non-cooperation need to be effectively communicated to the multiple actors at different levels, in ways that make sense to them … Creates awareness of the continuity and interdependence between the ecosystems, and the need for an integrated approach in order to protect the ‘common goods’-the Nile is a shared resource: Improves personal insight knowledge about the social, cultural, environmental, economic and political realities of other countries due to multiple visits to the neighboring countries, that helped to go beyond perceptions; Helps overcome cultural, political and social tensions, and builds trust and social peace between different groups, genders, communities, regions or states; Improves mutual understanding between experts from different countries that has helped fostering mutual trust and confidence, and a sense of community … Allows for building new networks of stakeholders, opens up markets for goods and labor, business opportunities for private sector and enhances trade opportunities; Common principles, standards, codes and conduct, procedures, and regulation of use of basin resources among riparians …

Mike Muller: Planning for Water, food, energy security … hydro-centric vs hydro-supportive: … Get the geography right, Respect political boundaries and other sectors, Make coordination work between right parties, Support,don’t try to decide, Hydro-centric approaches are not helpful: … development plans made for political geographies not river basins … Hydro-supportive approaches are effective where they: Engage with water using sectors, provide sound technical basis, inform inter-sectoralnational and regional development …

siehe auch:

Education is a Security Issue

Tony Blair: Fight war of ideas against extremism

14 October 2014 … There is a fundamental problem with radical Islamism. And it is imperative that we recognise the global nature of this problem, the scale of it, and from that analysis contrive the set of policies that will resolve it … In an essay last month, I set out the seven principles of understanding that I believe should underpin this strategy [siehe Bezugsdokument J.B.] … There is no doubt that force is needed to confront a group like Isis; it is a group of people who fight without hesitation, kill without mercy and die without regret. But left out of the analysis was one of the most important questions this generation of leaders faces: how we uproot the thinking of the extremists, not simply disrupt their actions … in order to fight a warped and worsening ideology in the long term we need to recognise that education is a security issue … That this issue is raised rarely in the debate of radical Islamism is both perplexing and alarming. Because each and every day the world over, millions, even tens of millions of young children are taught formally in school or in informal settings, a view of the world that is hostile to those of different beliefs … The challenge we face is to show young people who are vulnerable to appeals from terrorists that there is a better path to having their voice heard; that the only future that works is one in which people are respected as equals, whatever their faith or their culture … In the context of a world whose hallmark is people mixing together across the boundaries of race and culture, it is totally contrary to what those young people need to succeed in the 21st Century. So unless we tackle this question with the honesty and openness it demands, then all the security measures and all the fighting will count for nothing. As I have said before, especially foolish is the idea that we leave this process of the generational deformation of the mind undisturbed, at the same time as we spend billions on security relationships to counter the very threat we allow to be created. We need at the G20, or some other appropriate forum, as soon as we can, to raise this issue as a matter of urgent global importance and work on a common charter to be accepted by all nations, and endorsed by the UN, which makes it a common obligation to ensure that throughout our education systems, we’re committed to teaching the virtue of religious respect. This doesn’t mean an end to religious schools or that we oblige countries to teach their children that all religions are the same … Muslim countries will continue to teach their children the value of being Muslim. But we should all teach that people who have a different faith are to be treated equally and respected as such. And we should take care to root out teaching that inspires hatred or hostility. This should be a common global obligation, like action to root out racism or action to protect the environment. Nations should feel the pressure to promote respect and to eradicate disrespect …

Bezugsdokument: Tony Blair: The Way Ahead

22 Sep 2014 … Support Modern-minded Muslim Opinion. They Are Our Allies … This issue – so connected with the debate inside Islam – cannot in the end be won other than by Muslims. But we have both an interest in the outcome and a role in supporting those who realise that the only hope for the future lies in a world in which different faiths and cultures learn to live with each other in mutual harmony and respect … East and West Should Work Together … The extremism and its attendant ideology have caused serious attacks and terror in both Russia and China to say nothing of course of India. So the great powers of the East, without doubt, desire the right outcome to this battle as much as us … As will be very obvious reading the propaganda of the extremists and those further along the spectrum, essential to the propagation of their world view is the notion that this is a fight between the culture of the West and Muslims. We need to have it absolutely clear that this is false. It is actually a global battle between those who believe in religious tolerance and respect across boundaries of faith and culture; and those who don’t; between those who accept globalisation and those who don’t, not because globalisation produces injustice, but because it necessarily involves the mixing and mingling of people. In making this case, it is important – I would say essential – to have East and West lined up together. India should have a central part in any such alliance of nations East and West, because of its size, its experience and its religious composition … Education is a Security Issue … Certainly we made mistakes. And for sure our understanding frequently fell short. This is the way of things when new and original threats of great significance arise. But now we need to pool our energies and focus our attention, learning from the past so as better to address the future, without a narrow or partisan political debate, without attempts to discredit or decry, but with the combined rigour of analysis and action the situation now urgently demands …


Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften

24. November 2014 in München, Akademientag 2014:

Wasser– Lebensgrundlage und Konfliktstoff

… Wir stehen weltweit vor großen Herausforderungen, sei es bei der Versorgung mit Trinkwasser, bei wassertechnischen Großprojekten oder dem Erhalt der aquatischen Biodiversität. Wasser ist zugleich Lebensgrundlage und Konfliktstoff …

Programm: Workshops, Vorträge und Podiumsgespräche …

Wasser: Lebensgrundlage und Konfliktstoff – Akademie Aktuell, Ausgabe 3/2014

13.10.2014 … Aus diesem besonderen Anlass widmet die Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften diese Ausgabe von „Akademie Aktuell“ dem Thema Wasser … Die Zeitschrift kann kostenfrei über die Pressestelle der Akademie bezogen werden …


Eine Stadt kämpft um ihr Wasser

27. Oktober 2014 Der Edeka-Konzern will im oberpfälzischen Teublitz eine hochmoderne Abfüllanlage für Getränke bauen. Die Politiker freuen sich auf Steuereinnahmen und Arbeitsplätze. Doch die Bewohner leisten Widerstand … Als vor rund 30 Jahren eine atomare Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage in seine oberpfälzische Heimat Teublitz kommen sollte, war Steiner einer der Ersten, der dagegen aufmuckte. Als die WAA dann im benachbarten Wackersdorf angesiedelt werden sollte, zählte er zu den Letzten, die sich solange wehrten, bis die Pläne endgültig vom Tisch waren. So sei er halt erzogen worden, sagt der 70-Jährige: sich nicht einfach alles gefallen zu lassen … sieht sich als hundertprozentigen Demokraten, als Optimisten, als Rentner im Unruhestand … Auf der einen Seite die Bürgermeisterin und ihre CSU-Mehrheit, die das Projekt durchsetzen wollen; auf der anderen eine Bürgerinitiative, die den "Ausverkauf unseres Wassers", wie Steiner sagt, unbedingt verhindern will … Jährlich 500 000 Kubikmeter Wasser will der Konzern in den kommenden 30 Jahren von der Stadt kaufen, eine weitere Million Kubikmeter für Süßgetränke soll aus anderen Kommunen bezogen werden … Etwa 400 000 Kubikmeter Wasser verbraucht die Stadt Teublitz, die derzeitige Fördermenge ist auf 525 000 Kubikmeter festgeschrieben. Ein von der Stadt in Auftrag gegebenes Gutachten besagt, dass die Entnahmemenge auf 750 000 Kubikmeter jährlich erhöht werden könnte. Um die mit Edeka benötigten 900 000 Kubikmeter zu erreichen, fehlen aber noch 150 000 Kubikmeter. Da der Konzern eine einheitliche Mineralwasserqualität braucht, sollen Teublitzer Bürger daher künftig 200 000 Kubikmeter Wasser aus Schwandorf beziehen … Weil das Schwandorfer Wasser sogar teurer ist, würde Edeka für die Differenz aufkommen. Überhaupt zeigt sich der Lebensmittelkonzern sehr investitionsfreudig. In dem dreistelligen Millionenbetrag enthalten ist nicht nur der Kauf des gut 38 Hektar großen Geländes an der A 93, sondern auch dessen Erschließung zu einem Gewerbegebiet, inklusive der Abholzung Zehntausender Bäume. Außerdem zahlt Edeka mehrere von der Stadt veranlasste Gutachten … Etwa 200 Arbeitsplätze sollen entstehen, reichlich Gewerbesteuer fließen …

In Brazil, 20 million people may not have enough water

October 27 … Southeastern Brazil is experiencing one of its worst droughts in decades. The country’s water supply has almost run dry. Satellite images released by NASA’s Earth Observatory show Brazil’s reservoirs reduced to as little as 3 percent of their capacity, prompting water restrictions throughout the region … Of the 44 million residents in the state of Sao Paulo, at least 14 million have been affected by shortages … The total rainfall in the region this year is down 12 to 16 inches below normal, which has hurt the region’s key crops … A group of scientists and meteorologists believes the lack of rain is not only due to global warming, but destruction of the rain forest … Scientists believe that because there are fewer trees able to absorb water from the ocean, less moisture is released into the air. The Amazon evaporates 20 billion tons of vapor everyday. To put this into perspective: One square mile of ocean evaporates one liter per day while one large tree in the Amazon can evaporate up to 300 liters per day …

Water Crisis Seen Worsening as Sao Paulo Nears ‘Collapse’

Oct 21, 2014 Sao Paulo residents were warned by a top government regulator today to brace for more severe water shortages as President Dilma Rousseff makes the crisis a key campaign issue ahead of this weekend’s runoff vote. “If the drought continues, residents will face more dramatic water shortages in the short term,” Vicente Andreu, president of Brazil’s National Water Agency and a member of Rousseff’s Workers’ Party, told reporters in Sao Paulo. “If it doesn’t rain, we run the risk that the region will have a collapse like we’ve never seen before,” he later told state lawmakers. The worst drought in eight decades is threatening drinking supplies in South America’s biggest metropolis, with 60 percent of respondents in a Datafolha poll published yesterday saying their water supplies were restricted at least once in the past 30 days. Three-quarters of those people said the cut lasted at least six hours … Rousseff … is stepping up her attacks of Sao Paulo state’s handling of the water crisis … With more than 40

million people and over 96,000 square miles (250,000 square kilometers), Sao Paulo state is geographically bigger than the U.K. It’s responsible for almost a third of Brazil’s gross domestic product …

Dürre in Brasilien – São Paulo geht das Wasser aus

21.10.2014 Die Wasserreserven im brasilianischen Bundesstaat São Paulo sind erschöpft, Millionen Bewohner betroffen. Vor der Stichwahl um das Präsidentenamt spielt die Dürre deshalb auch im Wahlkampf eine wichtige Rolle … Das Reservoir Cantareira, ein System von vier Stauseen im Norden der Metropolenregion São Paulo, das gut acht Millionen Menschen mit Trinkwasser versorgt, ist praktisch leer. Mehr als 96 Prozent seiner Kapazität sind verbraucht, der rissige Boden der Stauseen ist zudem von verrosteten Autowracks übersät, die dort „entsorgt“ worden waren, als diese noch gut mit Wasser gefüllt waren. Schon Mitte Mai wurde die sogenannte erste „technische Reserve“ des Cantareira-Systems angezapft. Darunter versteht man jene Wassermenge, die mit erheblichem technischem und finanziellem Aufwand in den größten der vier Stauseen heraufgepumpt werden muss. In der vergangenen Woche ließ sich die Chefin der Wasserwerke von São Paulo (Sabesp), Dilma Pena, zu der Warnung hinreißen, der 20-Millionen-Metropole werde Mitte November das Wasser ausgehen, sollte es nicht bald ergiebig regnen. Tags darauf widersprach die Presseabteilung von Sabesp der eigenen Vorsitzenden. „Sabesp gewährleistet die Wasserversorgung bis März 2015“, heißt es in einer Mitteilung der Wasserwerke … Unterdessen versichert Gouverneur Alckmin unverdrossen, die Wassersituation sei unter Kontrolle. Man werde eben die Verbraucher mit zusätzlichen finanziellen Anreizen zum Wassersparen bewegen, weiteres Wasser aus der „technischen Reserve“ heraufpumpen und schließlich zusätzliche oberirdische Wasserläufe für die Versorgung der Bevölkerung und der Industrie erschließen. Doch die drei Strategien des Gouverneurs zur Überwindung der Wasserkrise sind längst an ihre Grenzen gestoßen. Kunden von Sabesp, die ihren Wasserverbrauch um 20 Prozent reduzieren, erhalten seit Wochen einen Preisnachlass von 30 Prozent auf ihre Wasserrechnung. Auf Informationsblättern von Sabesp, die Tages- und Wochenzeitungen beiliegen, werden Tipps gegeben, wie man Wasser sparen kann: das Geschirr nicht unter fließendem Wasser spülen; beim Einseifen unter der Dusche, beim Zähneputzen und bei der Nassrasur den Hahn zudrehen; an tropfenden Wasserhähnen die Dichtungen auswechseln; und so weiter. Der Verbrauch ist dennoch kaum zurückgegangen, er nimmt vielmehr zu Beginn der warmen Jahreszeit wie gewohnt zu. Außerdem leben in den Metropolen des Bundesstaates Millionen Einwohner in Hochhäusern, deren Wohnungen keinen individuellen Wasserzähler haben; also gibt es keinen finanziellen Anreiz zum Wassersparen. Toilettenspülungen mit Spartaste sind in einem Land wie Brasilien, wo etwa drei Prozent der Weltbevölkerung leben, das aber über rund 15 Prozent der globalen Süßwasserreserven verfügt, so gut wie unbekannt. Die Unsitte, den Bürgersteig oder die Garageneinfahrt mit dem Wasserschlauch statt mit dem Besen zu reinigen, ist trotz Verhängung empfindlicher Strafen nach wie vor weit verbreitet. Hinzu kommt, dass bis zu 40 Prozent des Wassers, das Sabesp ins Leitungsnetz einspeist, durch Lecks und schadhafte Leitungen verloren geht. Um diese Verschwendung zu überwinden, müssten über Jahre hinweg viele Milliarden investiert werden …


Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection fines Wilkinsburg-Penn Joint Water Authority

October 24, 2014 … $114,000 for not sufficiently disinfecting water delivered to its customers in November. The fine is the largest the DEP’s Safe Drinking Water Program in the Southwest Region has levied in 20 years … According to the DEP, the authority failed at least 15 times that month to maintain a minimum disinfectant concentration in the water entering the distribution system. The authority also didn’t notify the department within one hour or its customers within 24 hours. The DEP said both were violations of safe drinking water regulations … no illnesses or customer complaints were reported. Though the water was being disinfected, it was not up to DEP standards … The authority said the violations occurred because its certified water treatment officials didn’t know they were required to maintain the minimum disinfectant concentration … The authority will provide 15 hours of disinfection training to its nine officials by Feb. 28 …

Unsafe Drinking Water Adds to California’s Drought Misery

October 24 2014 California is digging deep to get the drinking water it needs … the groundwater it is using is unsafe for nearly 800,000 residents, according to the state’s water resources control board, because of longtime contamination from nitrates and arsenic. That’s meant less drinkable water in California’s struggle to survive more than three years of severely dry weather … The lack of rain and subsequent heavy demand on ground wells—which are also facing supply problems—is making a bad situation worse … According to the state water resources study, unsafe levels of arsenic are the top contaminant in groundwater supplies, followed by nitrates. Nitrates are most often traced to farming chemicals and animal waste. Arsenic is found naturally in soil and rock in much of the world and seeps into groundwater … The state water resources board said 98 percent of the 38 million Californians get safe drinking water from public sources and treated groundwater supplies. But 772,883 Californians rely on groundwater that is contaminated due to the high cost of water treatment or a lack of alternative water sources … Of that number, 400,000 are in the San Joaquin Valley—often referred to as the "food basket of the world" for its agricultural production. One of the areas hardest hit by contaminants in the valley is Tulare County, where supplies of water bottles at state expense have been dispersed to many residents on a weekly basis … the county water commission is planning to find new groundwater wells but is more likely to pay, with state and federal funds, to bring in water from other sources … In 2012, Gov. Jerry Brown signed legislation establishing a state policy that every Californian has a human right to safe, clean, affordable and accessible drinking water … But experts say there aren’t enough enforcement mechanisms in place … But what would help even more are near endless days of rain …

For First Time, Water Tops List Of Californians’ Concerns

October 23, 2014 More than three times as many Californians are following news about the drought than are following news about the state’s gubernatorial race. A new poll from the Public Policy Institute of California found that 62 percent of voters are following the drought very closely while only 18 percent are following the election very closely. About another 30 percent were following each “fairly closely” … For the first time since 1998 … asking what the most important issue facing the state is, water and drought are at the top. Taken earlier this month, 26 percent of respondents to the statewide survey said “water, drought” were the most important issues facing the state right now … the acute and immediate impacts of water scarcity and drought and the effects of long-term climate change in California are heavily linked. A recent study that quantified the risk of devastating, prolonged drought in the U.S. due to global warming found that California, especially southern California, is around 50 percent more susceptible to megadroughts over the next century. A recent National Science Foundation study also found that the record drought in California is directly tied to climate change … Millions of people are already being impacted by watering restrictions, more expensive groceries, and increased danger from forest fires …

Enough drought-intolerant development

October 17, 2014 … a reality becomes clear: Our success in getting through the drought will depend largely on whether government can convince the public with its actions that it truly cares about wasting water … California’s water situation, with its cyclic droughts, is not new. If our "leaders" in the past had not spinelessly (or complicitly) rolled over to the demands of relentless development, there would be no need to make life miserable for those of us who have lived here for many years. California has, and always has had, plenty of water — for the number of people who should be living here …

FAZ-Video: Dürre in Kalifornien Wasser wird Luxus

17.10.2014 Kalifornien leidet unter einer extremen Dürre, so dass viele Menschen kein fließendes Wasser mehr haben. So wie die Bewohner in Porterville, deren Brunnen versiegen. Auch in den Bergen wird das Wasser allmählich knapp.

Amid drought, mayor directs L.A. to cut water use 20% by 2017

October 14, 2014 Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti issued an executive directive on Tuesday requiring Los Angeles to reduce its fresh water use 20% by 2017 as a response to the prolonged drought. Garcetti also asked L.A. departments to dramatically cut the amount of water used by replacing lawns and other city landscaping, including street medians, with less thirsty plants … "Our relationship with water must evolve," Garcetti said. "We cannot afford the water policies of the past. We must conserve, recycle and rethink how we use our water to save money and make sure that we have enough water to keep L.A. growing." The mayor also directed that the city’s Department of Water and Power reduce its purchases of costlier imported water by 50% by the year 2024 … There were no new mandatory restrictions announced Tuesday for residents. But Garcetti asked them to voluntarily reduce their outdoor watering to two days a week. The mayor asked them to use DWP rebates to install landscaping that is drought-resistant, and to install more efficient plumbing fixtures and appliances. The mayor said that if water reduction targets are not met by a combination of mandatory city actions and voluntary steps by residents, then residential restrictions will be mandated — including restrictions on watering and washing cars …

The Risks of Cheap Water

OCT. 14, 2014 This summer, California’s water authority declared that wasting water — hosing a sidewalk, for example — was a crime … It will get worse. As climate change and population growth further stress the water supply from the drought-plagued West to the seemingly bottomless Great Lakes, states and municipalities are likely to impose increasingly draconian restrictions on water use … But the proliferation of limits on water use will not solve the problem because regulations do nothing to address the main driver of the nation’s wanton consumption of water: its price … Water is far too cheap across most American cities

and towns. But what’s worse is the way the United States quenches the thirst of farmers, who account for 80 percent of the nation’s water consumption and for whom water costs virtually nothing … markets and prices are an indispensable part of the tool kit to combat scarcity. They are essential to induce both conservation and investment in water-saving technology, and to steer water to where it is valued most … water rights are primarily subject to state law. In the West, they have been allocated by a method that closely resembles “first come first served.” The first farm that drew water had a right to whatever it needed pretty much forever. Junior users — who arrived later — had to stand in line … Seven states in the Colorado River system are starting a pilot program to explore a market between farmers and urban water authorities to help maintain water volumes in Lake Powell and Lake Mead … Still, markets such as those timidly emerging in the West could not only free water for the users who value it more, but they could also provide farmers with the revenue needed to invest in water management technology. None of this will come easily. People like cheap water and protest when rates rise. Farmers have resisted transfers of water to cities at least since California’s water wars a century ago … There isn’t more water to grab. Which means markets must play their part …

California Water No Longer ‚Pump-As-You-Please‘ After Governor Signs New Regulations

09/16/2014 — California will no longer be the last Western state with a pump-as-you-please approach to groundwater. Gov. Jerry Brown signed legislation … overhauling the state’s management of its groundwater supply, bringing it in line with other states that have long regulated their wells … Supporters of the legislation say the worst drought in a generation inspired them to rethink property owners‘ unlimited rights to draw from wells, which has led to sinking land and billions of dollars in damage to aquifers, roads and canals … The opposition was driven by agricultural interests that are increasingly dependent on pumping from wells as reservoirs dry up and government water allocations plunge in the drought. They say the legislation was rushed and punishes well-managed agencies while infringing on property rights … The new laws, which take effect in January, specifically target areas where groundwater basins are being depleted faster than they are being replenished. It gives local land planners two years to create a groundwater sustainability agency, which in turn has up to seven years to develop a plan for managing wells and pumping. The state Water Resources Control Board would step in and develop plans for communities that fail to abide by these rules …


Asit K. Biswas + Ahmet C. Bozer: Was Wasser wert ist

SEP 18, 2014 Im frühen 19. Jahrhundert schrieb Lord Byron in Don Juan: “Bevor er durch das Leiden belehrt wird, weiß der Mensch nicht wirklich, was gutes Wasser wert ist.“ Fast 200 Jahre später scheint die Menschheit den Wert des Wassers immer noch nicht zu kennen. Praktisch überall wird seit Jahrzehnten schlechtes Wassermanagement betrieben. Aber die drohende Wasserkrise ist immer schwerer zu ignorieren – besonders für diejenigen, die bereits jetzt ihre Auswirkungen spüren. Zweifellos gab es bei der Verwaltung des Wassers in den letzten Jahren ein paar Verbesserungen. Aber sie kamen nur schrittweise und viel zu langsam für eine effektive Problemlösung … Die vorherrschende Ansicht beispielsweise, die Welt brauche ein gutes Wassermanagement, ist zwar richtig, aber zu eng. Wassermanagement sollte nicht als Selbstzweck betrachtet werden – als einzige Lösungsvariable für ein eindimensionales Problem – sondern als Mittel für viele Ziele, darunter Umweltschutz sowie soziale und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung … Weil der Wettbewerb um Wasserressourcen nicht getrennt vom Wettbewerb um beispielsweise Nahrung oder Energie betrachtet werden kann, kann er auch nicht unabhängig bearbeitet werden. Probleme mit vielen Variablen verlangen nach entsprechend vielschichtigen Lösungen. Komplizierter noch wird es dadurch, dass sich der Hintergrund dieser Probleme in den nächsten paar Jahrzehnten deutlich verändern wird. Gründe dafür sind der demographische Wandel, Bevölkerungswachstum, Urbanisierung, Migration in und zwischen Ländern, Globalisierung, Handelsliberalisierung und das schnelle Wachstum der Mittelklasse in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern. Diese Veränderungen werden von schneller Industrialisierung und wissenschaftlichen sowie technischen Fortschritten (insbesondere in der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie) begleitet werden und die Ernährungsgewohnheiten und Konsummuster transformieren. Als Ergebnis werden sich die Muster des Wasserkonsums deutlich ändern, auch indirekt über Verschiebungen in den Bereichen der Landwirtschaft, Energie und Landnutzung … Der Wassersektor muss auf Entwicklungen im Energiesektor und anderen Bereichen reagieren, über die er trotz enger Verbindungen nur begrenzte Kontrolle hat. Eine effektive Koordination der Maßnahmen in den verschiedenen Sektoren wird, gelinde ausgedrückt, schwierig sein. Diese Probleme mögen sich beängstigend anhören, aber in Wirklichkeit sind sie lösbar – wenn unsere Politiker sich für ihre Lösung einsetzen. Über die Technologie, das Wissen, die Erfahrung und sogar die dazu erforderliche Finanzierung verfügen wir bereits. Mit starkem politischen Willen, anhaltendem Druck aus einer informierten Öffentlichkeit und einer tatkräftigen Bemühung der Wasserwirtschaftler und ihrer Einrichtungen um eine Kooperation zwischen den Sektoren können die Probleme des Wassermanagements in aller Welt effektiv gelöst werden. Aber wir müssen sofort handeln. Die Zeit – und das Wasser – rinnen uns durch die Finger.–biswas-and-ahmet-c–bozer-warn-that-current-efforts-to-improve-the-management-of-water-scarcity-are-woefully-inadequate/german

Nile dam talks inch forward but Egypt gets no water guarantee

Oct 18 – The three main countries that share the Nile River’s waters moved toward an agreement to study whether a planned $4 billion Ethiopian dam would disrupt flows to downstream countries, water ministers of Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt said … But while the countries continue talks, construction will proceed on the Renaissance Dam, which will be Africa’s biggest dam and aims to provide cheap power for countries as far away as South Africa and Morocco … The project, being built by Italy’s Salini Impregilo SpA , aims to produce 6,000 megawatts of electricity for a power-hungry region … But it has upset Egypt … is concerned that years of filling the new dam’s 74 billion cubic metre reservoir will temporarily cut the river’s flow, and that surface water evaporation from the huge new lake will then reduce it permanently. In a sign of the limits that talks will have on Ethiopia’s plans to become a regional power hub, the country’s water minister declined … to offer any hard guarantees that the dam would not adversely affect Egypt. "Ethiopia designs all the dams in the country in a way that does not harm significantly the downstream countries," Alemayehu Tegenu said in response to a reporter’s question. "This is a principle. This principle by itself is very important. There is no need to give a guarantee" …

The US, South Africa and Australia are turning wastewater into drinking water

13 October 2014 Water stressed cities are importing water and investing in desalination plants. Could treating sewage plant wastewater offer a local, energy-efficient way of securing water supply? … Water stressed cities now import water, pumped over large distances at a considerable energy cost … Other cities … are investing in seawater desalination … But this process is also highly energy intensive and its application limited to coastal locations. An alternative opportunity is to reclaim the water that we discharge from sewage treatment plants and treat that to a quality suitable for safe human consumption. Reusing highly treated municipal sewage effluent is not a new idea. It has traditionally been achieved by a process known as indirect potable reuse (IPR). Examples of unplanned IPR exist throughout the world, such as in Adelaide. In such cases, conventional sewage treatment plants discharge effluents to rivers (in Adelaide’s case into the Murray-Darling Rivers), which are then used as drinking water sources for cities downstream. Alternatively, planned IPR usually involves treating the sewage effluents to a very high degree by advanced water treatment processes before releasing the purified water to a lake or groundwater system used for drinking water supply. While planned IPR has been an important water supply strategy for a number of decades, an alternative approach, known as direct potable reuse (DPR) is now rapidly gaining favour in countries including the US, South Africa and Australia … a number of very large Californian cities such as San Diego, Los Angeles and Sacramento are now all actively considering the development of DPR schemes as a major contributor to future water supplies. Major changes to regulation (such as the California Water Code) have been implemented to facilitate these potential projects … Among the key advantages of DPR is that the water tends to be available much closer to the location at which it can be used, compared to water which must be imported over long distances …

SR1.4bn water contracts signed

Sep 27 2014 The Minister of Water and Electricity Abdullah Al-Hussayen signed here this week a contract with three local companies to manufacture, supply and implement a feeder line project in the capital from the water tanks to three locations within the city … The project consists of three pipelines, of which two are 80 inches in diameter with a total length of 92.5 km., while the third pipeline measures 100 inches in diameter with a length of 41 km … The minister added: "The Riyadh region is currently getting more than 800,000 cubic meters of desalinated water per day from the Jubail plant, and after running all the desalination units in Ras Al-khair, which were launched this year, this will work out to an additional 900,000 cubic meters." … the water supply system links the capital and its affiliated provinces through four systems. They are Jubail Riyadh line (A and B), Jubail Riyadh pipeline (third line), and the fourth line connects Riyadh pipeline and Riyadh-Sudair-Alwashm and Al-Qaseem.

Water Pressures in Central Asia

11 Sep 2014 Growing tensions in the Ferghana Valley are exacerbated by disputes over shared water resources. To address this, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan urgently need to step back from using water or energy as a coercive tool and focus on reaching a series of modest, bilateral agreements, pending comprehensive resolution of this serious problem … Political rivalries, economic competition, heightened nationalism and mistrust hamper the search for a solution to the region’s growing water and energy needs … report, Water Pressures in Central Asia … examines the impact of water issues on shared border areas in the volatile Ferghana Valley; water shortages in urban areas; and competing water and energy needs among the three riparian states … also analyses the international community’s potential to contribute to national and regional stability in Central Asia … Attempts at comprehensive regional solutions have foundered on mistrust. The three countries (and international backers) should act in the Ferghana Valley border areas to end annual competition and conflict over water by seeking step-by-step solutions rather than an all-inclusive resource settlement … “The failure of Bishkek, Dushanbe and Tashkent to resolve cross-border water problems shows a worrying disregard for stability in their common area. Strained ethnic relations and competition over water and land could be a deadly mix. Conflict in this volatile part of Central Asia risks rapid, possibly irreversible regional destabilisation” …

Bezugsdokument: Water Pressures in Central Asia

Europe and Central Asia Report N°233 11 Sep 2014

siehe auch:

ENVSEC Map Water issues in the Ferghana Valley

ENVSEC – Environment and Security Initiative was established in 2003 by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In 2004, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) became an associated member of the Initiative, and since then coordinates with ENVSEC its environmental activities that are aiming at enhancing the security in vulnerable regions, and supports selected ENVSEC projects that are in line with NATO’s geographical and thematic priorities. From 2006 inwards the Initiative is strengthened by two new members – the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe (REC). The ENVSEC Management Board is the key decision-making body of the Initiative …

Hinweis: … In a paper called "Fergana as FATA? A Post-2014 Strategy for Central Asia," Colonel Ted Donnelly of the U.S. Army War College argues “… the most likely post-2014 outcome is that the Fergana Valley will increasingly resemble the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) region of Pakistan. Like the FATA, the future Fergana Valley will consist of significant ungoverned space which would serve as a safe haven, breeding ground, and staging area for VEOs [violent extremist organizations] and militants … VEOs would use this safe haven, as well as reconstituted rear areas in Afghanistan, to increase Islamist insurgent pressure on secular Central Asian governments …”

2012 Will The Ferghana Valley Become The New FATA? …

2011 Fergana as FATA? Central Asia after 2014 – Outcomes and Strategic Options

America’s Urban Water Crisis

September 09, 2014 … America was built on top of water and wastewater pipes and tunnels … Last year, the American Society of Civil Engineers said U.S. water and wastewater systems are close to failing. It’s now estimated we’ll need to spend $4.8 trillion over the next 20 years to fix these systems and maintain the country’s current water service levels, according to the U.S. Conference of Mayors. Despite this, the federal government continues to ignore the problem …

The Water, Energy, and Security Nexus in Africa: From Crisis to Cooperation

08/25/2014 The Africa Center for Strategic Studies co-hosted a series of events on water, energy and security in Africa August 19–21, 2014, in partnership with the Environmental Security Division at AFRICOM, US Army Corps of Engineers, Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, South Africa–based Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Woodrow Wilson Internationa, Center for Scholars … Variability and changes in climate are having a significant impact on stability and human security in Africa – from the Lake Chad Basin where loss of livelihoods and subsequent migration has fostered terrorism, to the Congo River where increased pollution and reduced navigability has become detrimental to human security. Participants called for a reframing of the discourse on climate change and water security. Effective framing of these issues will not only increase clarity, but will also focus on the current situation and rate of change rather than a worst case scenario. It was also noted that framing the solution in a trans-disciplinary manner will increase the likelihood of success by including relevant technological as well as institutional aspects. Development and poverty reduction are inextricably linked to the water, energy and security nexus in Africa. There was some consensus that the impact of climate variability and extreme climate events depends not only on the severity of the crisis, but also on the vulnerability of the affected population – which is correlated with the level of development along with governance and other socio-cultural factors. Just as poverty can put communities at an increased level of vulnerability, so can sustainable development lead to improvements in climate-resilience and human security. Although harnessing Africa’s rivers to increase access to electricity could serve as a catalyst for economic growth and development, it was noted that countries must work to minimize environmental damage and work with other riparian states to ensure equitable outcomes. Participants stressed the need to incorporate local contexts within larger national and regional narratives by coordinating and leveraging research and action across all levels of society and government. They also highlighted the need for African countries to glean best practices from South American or Asian counterparts with similar water and energy challenges. Additionally, the science-policy interface must be strengthened in order to achieve science-based policy and policy-based science. By coming together, these groups can share and leverage their work, increasing the effectiveness of efforts to address this complex challenge to African security. The most recurring theme in these meetings was the call to action. There was strong consensus on the need to implement effective, sustainable policies within the institutions and mechanisms that are already in place. One participant in the meetings noted the inclination of politicians to, “focus on the next election, rather than the next generation.” Emphasizing the need for political will and making the point that politicians will only be responsive to issues of water security and climate-related stressors if there is sufficient political pressure. Participants offered an array of solutions to the problem of implementation, coming back to framing in a politically-relevant manner, educating citizens regarding the grave impacts of climate change and poor resource management as well as further investment in capacity-building and equipping. They stressed the urgent need to transform crisis into cooperation through collaborative utilization of trans-boundary resources and joint efforts to combat the damaging impact of climate change and variability …

Water Wars: the Islamic State and the Mosul Dam

29.08.14 … Water has become a central focus for both the Islamic State and its combatants in the current struggle being waged over the large geographic area of northern Iraq and southern Syria … This is an area that has historically been arid, but is also experiencing one of the most severe and prolonged droughts of the last fifty years. Fundamentally, whoever controls the water controls the region. As the IS has rampaged through Iraq, hydro-infrastructure has been one of their main targets. Most significantly, in early August, IS forces took control over the vital Mosul Dam which provides power and irrigation to a large swath of Iraqi land … The Mosul Dam is the fourth largest dam in the Middle East and a significant character in its own right, regarding recent events and the region’s greater history. For many, the news that the IS had secured the Mosul Dam signaled both their increasing power as well as their strategic intentions … Potentially, the IS hoped to used to Mosul Dam to generate revenue, extorting money in exchange for water and power. But the dam could also become a weapon itself, according to Stuart W. Bowen Jr., the former US special inspector general for Iraq reconstruction. This is not unprecedented: in April of this year, the IS captured the Fallujah barrage and flooded vast areas, forcing thousands to flee in some areas and simultaneously restricting water access to others, adding thirst to their arsenal … Moreover, the Fallujah dam played a vital role in the area’s agricultural irrigation, so sabotaging it will undoubtedly produce future dramatic food shortages. If the IS were to have destroyed the Mosul Dam, a 65-foot wave would have been unleashed across areas of northern Iraq, reaching the city of Mosul and its 1.8 million inhabitants in just two hours … A 2006 report by the US Army Corp of Engineers stated, "In terms of internal erosion potential of the foundation, Mosul Dam is the most dangerous dam in the world." If the dam were to fail, the city of Mosul would be under 65 feet of water and Baghdad would see up to 15 feet. Half a million people would die. The appearance of the Haditha Dam, the second-largest in the country after the Mosul Dam, alongside Saddam Hussein on the 250 Dinar note showcases the importance of dam projects for bolstering his regime … Michael Stephen, deputy director of the Royal United Services Institute think-tank in Qatar, is quoted in a recent article for The Guardian, stating, “We are seeing a battle for control of water. Water is now the major strategic objective of all groups in Iraq. It’s life or death. If you control water in Iraq you have a grip on Baghdad, and you can cause major problems. Water is essential in this conflict.” While the pivotal role of water is obviously not new for the region, the long-standing drought as well as rising temperatures intensifies its importance. Syrian forces loyal to Bashar al-Assad, the dictatorial ruler of the country before and during its prolonged civil war, have been documented using water, or the lack of it, as a military weapon — just like the IS … While evidently not new, the militaristic use of water and its infrastructure significantly exacerbates an already pressing problem for the region. Coupled with a changing climate, the effects of the IS and other attacks on hydro-infrastructure will create an unprecedented humanitarian crisis, one that is already becoming visible. Additionally, current and planned water management in the greater region poses a significant threat to Iraq. Both Turkey and Iran already capture large amounts of water for their own agriculture and energy before it enters Iraq. The Kurdistan regional government plans to complete the Bekhme Dam along the border of Iraq and Syria on a major tributary of the Tigris. And by 2018, Iran plans to create a new dam that would divert even more water that normally flows into Iraq. Such water diversions, coupled with the lack of rainfall, will exacerbate drought conditions in region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the key agricultural region of the country. As Akio Kitoh of Japan’s Meteorological Research Institute put it in an article for The New Scientist: "The ancient Fertile Crescent will disappear in this century." While riparian rights have long been a contentious issue between nation-states, contemporary ecological crises have the potential to provoke countless wars in the region, with perhaps the current conflicts serving as just the beginning. In light of this, contemporary water management practices must be critically and urgently re-evaluated …

Siehe auch:

October 12, 2014 In Arid Iraq, Control Of Water Is Part Of ISIS Arsenal

… Water is a crucial resource to those living along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. NPR’s Ari Shapiro talks to researcher Matthew Machowski about how ISIS is using that natural resource as a weapon …

11.10.14 Irak: Islamischer Staat steigt ins Wasser-Geschäft ein

… Der Islamische Staat hat in einigen Gebieten des Iraks die Kontrolle über die Wasser- und Stromversorgung erlangt. Die Menschen sind nun Energie-Kunden der Terror-Gruppe geworden …


Post-2015 Development Agenda

+ Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)


Reducing risks from water related disasters: A must for the post-2015 development agenda

25 Sep 2014 – High-level special event on “Reducing risks from water related disasters: A must for the post-2015 development agenda” …


Ein Review-Mechanismus für die Post-2015-Ziele nachhaltiger Entwicklung – Vorschläge zu seiner Ausgestaltung

Oktober 2014 … Im September 2015 sollen die Staats- und Regierungschefinnen und -chefs der Mitgliedstaaten der Vereinten Nationen die Post-2015-Agenda verabschieden. Diese soll nicht nur universale Ziele nachhaltiger Entwicklung (Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs) umfassen, sondern auch einen Überprüfungsmechanismus, der beim neuen Hochrangigen Politischen Forum zu Nachhaltiger Entwicklung (HLPF) angesiedelt sein soll … Ein Review geht über das deskriptive Monitoring zur Erfolgsmessung hinaus, da in seinem Rahmen die verantwortlichen Regierungen kritisch-analytisch nach den Ursachen von Erfolg oder Misserfolg befragt und entsprechende Korrekturmaßnahmen empfohlen werden … Es ist wichtig, sich jetzt über das Follow-up der Post-2015-Ziele Gedanken zu machen, auch um Blockaden zwischen Nord und Süd in den noch bis September 2015 laufenden Verhandlungen zu überwinden. Zudem sollte Deutschland sich in der ersten Runde des Review-Verfahrens im Jahr 2016 mit seiner bis dahin überarbeiteten Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie präsentieren. So könnte die Bundesregierung international zeigen, welche Maßnahmen sie ergreift, damit in Deutschland und weltweit die Post-2015-Ziele erreicht werden. Dies würde Glaubwürdigkeit und die vielbeschworene neue globale Partnerschaft für nachhaltige Entwicklung aufbauen helfen und multilateralem Handeln neuen Schwung verleihen …

UN-Arbeitsgruppe: BNE Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Post-2015-Agenda

21.07.2014 Die von den Vereinten Nationen mit dem Entwurf nachhaltiger Entwicklungsziele beauftragte Open Working Group hat zum letzten Mal getagt. Im Dokument, das die Ergebnisse des Arbeitsprozesses zusammenfasst, wird die Rolle von BNE für die zukunftsfähige Welt erneut hervorgehoben. Insgesamt 13 Sitzungen mit wechselnden Schwerpunktthemen hat die Open Working Group (OWG) abgehalten. Bereits der "Zero Draft of goals and targets" vom 2. Juni 2014 nannte in Kapitel 4 die Integration der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung in Lehr- und Ausbildungspläne als ein wichtiges Unterziel. Nachdem die letzte Beratung der Open Working Group am 18. Juli 2014 in New York zu Ende gegangen ist, hat sie eine finale Zusammenfassung ihrer Ergebnisse vorgelegt. Dieses "Outcome Document" wird die Grundlage für die weiteren zwischenstaatlichen Verhandlungen über die Entwicklungsziele sein. Es bestätigt die Bedeutung von BNE erneut und geht sogar einen Schritt weiter. Unter Ziffer 4.7 macht die Arbeitsgruppe deutlich, dass bis zum Jahr 2030 gesichert werden müsse, dass alle lernenden Menschen Kenntnisse und Fähigkeiten erlangen können, die es ihnen ermöglichen, eine nachhaltige Entwicklung voranzubringen. Damit die Lernenden diese Gestaltungskompetenz erlangen können, seien diverse Voraussetzungen zu erfüllen. An erster Stelle stehen für die Arbeitsgruppe das Konzept BNE selbst und das Prinzip der nachhaltigen Lebensführung. Genannt werden unter anderem auch die Menschenrechte, Geschlechtergleichheit, Gewaltfreiheit, Weltbürgerschaft und die Anerkennung des Beitrags von kultureller Vielfalt für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Die Open Working Group on SDGs wurde im Juli 2012 von den Teilnehmerstaaten der Konferenz der Vereinigten Nationen über nachhaltige Entwicklung in Rio de Janeiro (Rio+20) eingerichtet. Ihr Auftrag war es tragfähige Zielvorgaben für nachhaltige Entwicklungsziele erarbeiten. Sie sollen alle drei Dimensionen der Nachhaltigkeit (Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Ökologie) beachten und dabei helfen, sie als Querschnittsthema in der Post-2015 Development Agenda der Vereinten Nationen zu verankern.

siehe auch:


2014 19 July … 11. Rio+20 reaffirmed the commitment to strengthen international cooperation to address the persistent challenges related to sustainable development for all, in particular in developing countries. In this regard, it reaffirmed the need to achieve economic stability, sustained economic growth, the promotion of social equity and the protection of the environment, while enhancing gender equality, women’s empowerment and equal employment for all, and the protection, survival and development of children to their full potential, including through education …

Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

6.1 by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

6.3 by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally

6.4 by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

6.5 by 2030 implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

6.6 by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

6.a by 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water and sanitation related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

6.b support and strengthen the participation of local communities for improving water and sanitation management

Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all …

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts …

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss …


Bonner Erklärung 2014 verabschiedet

30. September 2014 … Die rund 500 Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer der Konferenz "UN-Dekade mit Wirkung – 10 Jahre Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung in Deutschland" haben eine gemeinsame Erklärung verabschiedet „… Bildung ist ein Schlüssel, um die Ziele globaler nachhaltiger Entwicklung zu erreichen. BNE fördert Gestaltungskompetenz, Dialogfähigkeit, Orientierungswissen und das Erkennen von systemischen Zusammenhängen. BNE zielt auf Lebensstile, Partizipation, Werthaltungen, globale Verantwortung sowie Konsum- und Produktionsmuster. BNE befähigt zum nachhaltigen Handeln und fördert die Bereitschaft, Verantwortung für das eigene Handeln zu übernehmen. BNE markiert eine neue Bildungskultur, eine neue inhaltliche und methodische Richtung für das Lehren und Lernen. BNE betont kreatives und kritisches Denken, langfristige Ansätze, Innovationen und die Befähigung, mit Unsicherheiten umzugehen, komplexe Probleme zu lösen sowie an der Gestaltung der demokratischen und kulturell vielfältigen Gesellschaft mitzuwirken. Lehren und Lernen werden dabei von den Lernenden aus gedacht, Lehrende verstehen sich stärker als Lernende, partizipative Lernprozesse und Methoden werden neu gestaltet …“

140923 Harm Klimakanzlerin

140924 Chappatte RisingSeaLevel

Wasser als zentrales Politikum – Heidelberger Forscher untersuchen das Konfliktpotential von Wassermangel

20. Oktober 2014 … Die Geographen Prof. Dr. Hans Gebhardt und Prof. Dr. Marcus Nüsser untersuchen am Beispiel des Vorderen Orients sowie Süd- und Zentralasiens, welches Konfliktpotential Wassermangel in sich trägt. Ihre Forschungsarbeiten an der Universität Heidelberg zeigen: Hinter vermeintlich politischen und religiös begründeten Konflikten stecken oft knappe Wasserressourcen – sei es physischer Wassermangel, auch aufgrund des globalen Klimawandels, oder struktureller Wassermangel, also die durch politische Machtkonstellationen bedingte ungleiche Verteilung von Wasser. „Knappe Wasserressourcen können vor allem dann zum Konflikt führen, wenn große Ströme oder wichtige Grundwasserleiter Grenzen überschreiten“, so Prof. Gebhardt. Solche „transboundary waters“ sind ein weltweit verbreitetes Phänomen: 263 Seen und Flüsse sind grenzüberschreitend, 145 Nationen haben gemeinsam Anteil an Wasserflächen, 13 internationale Wasserressourcen werden von mehr als zwei Nationen genutzt. „Bei transnationalen Strömen sind zumeist die ‚Oberlieger’ im Vorteil, weil sie die Abflüsse kontrollieren können“, erläutern die Wissenschaftler. Beispiele sind der Euphrat, dessen Wasser in zunehmendem Maße vom „Great Anatolian“-Projekt (GAP) in der Osttürkei genutzt wird – zum Nachteil der Unterlieger Syrien und Irak – sowie die Staudammkaskaden Chinas am oberen Mekong, die die Wassernutzung in den Staaten Laos und Thailand sowie Kambodscha und Vietnam beeinträchtigen. Eines der ruhenden Gewässer, das an der Universität Heidelberg untersucht wird, ist der unterirdische Disi-Aquifer, der sich auf rund 320 Kilometern Länge vom Süden Jordaniens bis in die Nordregion Saudi-Arabiens erstreckt. Es handelt sich um einen fossilen Wasservorrat, auf den sowohl Agrarunternehmen Jordaniens als auch Saudi-Arabiens zugreifen. Beide Staaten streiten um die Nutzungsrechte des Disi-Aquifers, dessen Vorräte nach internationalen Schätzungen in 30 bis 50 Jahren erschöpft sein werden. Auch den Kaschmir-Konflikt zwischen Indien und Pakistan haben die Forscher unter dem Aspekt knapper Wasserressourcen analysiert. Teil des Konflikts ist ein seit 30 Jahren währender aufwändiger und kostenintensiver Stellungskrieg um den Besitz des Siachen-Gletschers im Norden Kaschmirs. „Die Auseinandersetzungen werden durch geostrategische Erwägungen, nationales Prestigedenken sowie den Wunsch nach Ressourcenzugängen motiviert und sind Erbe der Teilung Britisch-Indiens im Jahr 1947“, erklärt Prof. Nüsser. An den unterschiedlichen Fallbeispielen zeigt sich, dass die Problemfelder Wassermangel und Wasserkonflikte in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern einen integrativen Forschungsansatz erforderlich machen, in dem natur- und gesellschaftswissenschaftliche Methoden kombiniert werden. Daher umfasst das methodische Spektrum der Heidelberger Wissenschaftler nicht nur etablierte empirische Methoden der Sozialforschung, sondern reicht von der satellitengestützten Kartierung bis zur Diskursanalyse …


Report: In Times of Drought: Nine Economic Facts about Water in the United States

October 20, 2014 … This Hamilton Project memo presents nine economic facts that provide relevant background context to the water crisis in the United States … examine these issues through the lens of economic policy, with the aim of providing an objective framing of America’s complex relationship with water …

… Chapter 1. The Occurrence of Drought in the United States

Although not historically unprecedented, the United States is experiencing severe drought conditions. The current drought in the United States is concentrated in the West and Southwest, regions that are vulnerable to drought and whose populations are projected to grow rapidly in the coming decades.

Fact 1. The United States is experiencing serious, but not unprecedented, drought conditions.

Fact 2. Many of America’s Western states are consistently vulnerable to drought.

Fact 3. Population growth is highest in America’s driest states.

… Chapter 2. The Importance of Water to the U.S. Economy

A vast majority of the United States‘ water withdrawals go to two sectors, irrigation and power generation. Water is also vital for companies in a variety of industries.

Fact 4. Half of water withdrawals in the United States are used for power generation.

Fact 5. Eighty percent of California’s freshwater withdrawals go to agriculture.

Fact 6. Water is a crucial input for a wide variety of American industries, not just agriculture.

… Chapter 3. Barriers to Efficient Uses of Water

Both domestic water use and water prices vary across the United States. Moreover, our country’s systems for delivering water are highly fragmented.

Fact 7. Domestic use of water per capita is highest in the driest states.

Fact 8. Household water prices vary tremendously across cities.

Fact 9. There are more water systems in the United States than there are schools …

America’s Fragmented Water Systems

October 16, 2014 The severe drought gripping the Western United States has put a national spotlight on America’s relationship to water. Indeed, the changing landscape of our nation’s water supply necessarily demands a critical look at our water sector and at opportunities to improve the way we regulate, price, and consume water … we explore the current state of the U.S. water sector and the challenges of a de-centralized system … the modern economy depends on water. Unfortunately, our nation currently faces the real and pressing challenge of water scarcity, with potentially severe economic consequences. Water scarcity presents a significant barrier to sustained economic growth in multiple sectors of the U.S. economy … In a new policy memo In Times of Drought: Nine Economic Facts about Water in the United States, The Hamilton Project brings attention to recent trends in our nation’s supply of and demand for water and describes the importance of an efficient allocation of water resources for economic growth. Recognizing the importance of water for the U.S. economy, and the many and varied policy challenges and opportunities in the sector, The Hamilton Project has partnered with the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment to address the emerging water crisis and discuss new policy ideas that may help to mitigate the crisis … The new proposals will be discussed on October 20th during a joint forum at Stanford University …

The full agenda can be found here:

Newly Released Papers by The Hamilton Project/Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment on Water Policy:

-In Times of Drought: Nine Economic Facts about Water in the United States …

-Shopping for Water: How the Market Can Mitigate Water Shortages in the American West …

-The Path to Water Innovation …

Danke für diesen Tipp nach Berlin-Mitte! J.B.

Transforming the Electricity Portfolio: Lessons from Germany and Japan in Deploying Renewable Energy

September 2014 Amid an ongoing international debate on the reduction of carbon emissions, Germany and Japan are undertaking a dramatic shift in their electricity portfolios. … This shift raises fundamental energy policy questions: how can countries simultaneously decarbonize their electricity mix while phasing out nuclear energy? What are the costs and challenges of large-scale renewable integration? Who will bear these costs? In the Energy Security Initiative’s latest policy brief, authors John Banks, Charles Ebinger and Alisa Schackmann seek to answer these questions while identifying potential relevant lessons for large-scale deployment of renewables in the United States. Lessons from Japan and Germany’s transition: Countries must set objectives and develop consistent, durable and clear national policies to manage the complexity of large-scale renewable energy integration; A high level of renewable penetration presents unique challenges, but is manageable through a coordinated, system-wide approach; Cost and wealth distribution impacts must be managed; Solutions must be tailored to local conditions and include monitoring and course-correction mechanisms; Addressing transmission and grid challenges is critical; Renewables, especially distributed generation, are forcing changes in utility business models; Markets and industry structure matter … Implications for the United States: Policymakers must work to build a baseline consensus on national energy objectives and then develop and implement consistent, durable and clear policy mechanisms to achieve those objectives; The U.S. needs to elevate environmental goals as part of its overall energy objectives—in particular addressing climate change through reduction of greenhouse gases—and link these environmental goals to economic and national security issues; Renewable energy needs to be considered a national asset, with the capacity to balance multiple objectives

NFG Research Group „Asian Perception of the European Union“

Transitions towards Urban Water Security in Asia Pacific

15/09/2014 To achieve urban water security in the Asia-Pacific region, urban water managers can use a variety of demand management tools to alter the attitudes and behaviour of society towards water resources. This paper argues that urban water managers in the region need to transition towards actions that attempt to alter the norms and values of society regarding scarce resources, using the framework of diffusion and borrow successful practices from Europe and elsewhere.

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Network for Cooperation in Integrated Water Resource Management for Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

02.10.2014 … As changes occur in the drinking water supply and sanitation sector, new issues may be identified in the areas of regulation and service provision. The emergence of these issues does not mean that the traditional regulatory, institutional and financial problems have been overcome, or that the focus should shift to other areas, but rather that these new questions should complement the existing agenda …


The Global Water Contract

Peter Neill, World Ocean Observatory Part 1 10/07/2014 … In 1998, a private commission was assembled to address this challenge and to create a Global Water Contract to establish a framework for worldwide understanding, access, distribution, and protection of fresh water … The Global Water Contract is based on the premise that, "water is a vital good which belongs to all the inhabitants of the Earth in common. None of them, individually or as a group, can be allowed the right to make it private property. Water is the patrimony of mankind. Individual and collective health depends upon it … There is no production of wealth without access to water. Water is not like any other resource; it is not an exchangeable, marketable commodity … While the sharing of water has often been a major source of social inequality in the past, today’s civilizations recognize that access to water is a fundamental, inalienable, individual and collective right. The right to water is a part of the basic ethics of a "good" society and a "good" economy. It is up to society as a whole, and at the different levels of social organization, to guarantee the right of access, according to the double principle of co-responsibility and subsidiarity, without discrimination of race, sex, religion, income or social class" … The contract calls for radical change that goes against the consumption and capital-based mindset and conventions of today concerning ownership and the valorization of other natural resources. "It is society which must collectively assume all of the costs related to the collection, production, storage, distribution, use, conservation and recycling of water in view of supplying and guaranteeing access to water in the quantities and qualities considered as being the indispensable minimum. The costs are common social costs to be borne by the collective as a whole. This principle is even more relevant and significant at the level of a country, a continent, and the world society. The financing must be ensured by collective redistribution. The mechanisms of individual price-fixing, according to progressive pricing, must start from a level of water usage that goes beyond the vital and indispensable minimum. Beyond the vital minimum, progressive pricing must be a function of the quantity used. Finally, at a third layer, all abuses and excesses of usage must be considered illegal." This is a fundamental, revolutionary change and goes antithetically against the contemporary trends of profligate water use and waste, unregulated, uncontrolled pollution of natural water systems and aquifers, private ownership of water resources, distribution, and associated engineering and technology. It would have no chance for success except for the growing reality of water deprivation extending from desert and developing world communities into drought-stricken and over-consumed areas in such places as California where local limitations and emergencies become more frequent and more public. As the Committee concludes, "A partnership predominantly subject, as at present, to the logic and interests of private actors in relentless competition against each other for market conquest could only do harm to the objectives of access to water for all and global integrated sustainability." That is a convoluted way of saying that something very different must be done …

Part 2 10/14/2014 … The Committee argued for a radical shift in how fresh water should be conserved, managed, treated, and allocated, based on the premise that water is a public, not private resource; that a daily supply is an inalienable human right; and that availability and pricing reflect a change in access, cost, and conservation for all peoples and ensuing generations. Based on this revolutionary premise, the Committee goes on to make a series of progressive recommendations: First, the citizen must be at the center of decision-making, implying a high degree of democracy at the local, national, continental, and world level … Second, success must be founded on cooperation, mutual respect, and effective partnership … Third, specific steps toward this goal are as follows: the creation of a network of Parliaments for Water wherein legislatures create a new legal framework based on these new premises of ownership and management; the creation and validation of a "World Water Treaty;" the development or modernization of the systems of water distribution and sanitation … There is no question that public awareness of the world water crisis is growing. Several large organizations and planning endeavors look to water conservation and equitable distribution: the World Health Organization, the World Water Forum, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the Millennium Assessment Goals, Pacific Institute, and myriad smaller conservation organizations devoted to preserving lands, river, streams, and wetlands as an integrated watershed system …

Bezugsdokument: Riccardo Petrella; Patrick Camiller; Mario Soares: The water manifesto: arguments for a world water contract, London 2001.

Group of Lisbon + Mario Soares Foundation: Water Manifesto / Water Contract:

… und dann war da noch:


Pinkeln unter der Dusche – Wassersparen in England

11.10.14 … Die Kampagne “Go with the flow” von Chris Dobsen und Debbs Torr steht auf der Storyhitliste der BBC an erster Stelle. Wobei sich auch an den Online-Kommentaren nicht erschließen lässt, ob Begeisterung für eine neue Wassersparinitiative der von Wasserknappheit gebeutelten Engländer oder die Unappetitlichkeit dieser Idee der Treiber ist … Das könnte, so die Berechnungen der Studenten, in ganz England jährlich 720 Millionen Liter Trinkwasser sparen. Diese Menge würde ansonsten für die Toilettenspülung eingesetzt …

… und wer hat‘s erfunden – nee, nicht die Briten – auch nicht die Schweizer … die BRASILIANER warn‘s:

SOS Mata Atlântica (Xixi no Banho)

(engl. Untertitel)

28. August 2009 Es läuft: Wie Brasilianer den Regenwald retten wollen – Ich muss mal duschen …

141023 Tomicek Klimapolitik

140923 Tomicek cool

Beste Grüße von der Elbe

Jörg Barandat