Joerg Barandat, Hamburg: WATERINTAKE 05/2014

W A T E R I N T A K E

05/2014

April

07.05.2014

WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

140506 Stuttmann Kalte Progression

Caracas beginnt wegen Dürre mit viermonatiger Wasserrationierung

7. Mai 2014 Wegen anhaltender Dürre sehen sich die Behörden der venezolanischen Hauptstadt Caracas gezwungen, Wasser mindestens vier Monate lang zu rationieren … eines der drei Reservoirs, das Caracas mit Wasser versorgt, sei mangels Wasser geschlossen. Die Wasserzufuhr für die Fünf-Millionen-Einwohner-Staat fiel um 13 Prozent von 19.500 Liter auf 17.000 Liter pro Sekunde …

http://www.zeit.de/news/2014-05/07/venezuela-wasser-wetter-duerre-proteste-gewalt-caracas-beginnt-wegen-duerre-mit-viermonatiger-wasserrationierung-07090803

Whose water is it anyways? Resentment pools on Israel-Lebanon border

May 6, 2014 … A sealed well used for more than a century by residents of Blida, a small village in southern Lebanon, has found itself on the wrong side of the border as water shortages entice local farmers to tap it. A few miles east along the border, another territorial dispute looms at a Lebanese tourist site beside the Hasbani river, which flows into Israel. The 24-foot deep well, known as Nabi Sheaib, skirts the course of the Blue Line, the United Nations term for a boundary created in 2000 which corresponds to Lebanon’s southern border. Israeli troops were required by the UN to pull out of south Lebanon, to behind the blue line, to end its 1978-2000 occupation of south Lebanon. Cartographers often struggle with such boundaries because Global Positioning Systems are not precise enough … Blida’s problem began when UNFIL realized that the Nabi Sheaib well actually lay about three feet on the Israeli side, and therefore was technically out of bounds to Lebanese citizens … A few miles to the northeast, near Wazzani village, the line follows the middle of the Hasbani river, which separates Lebanon from Israeli-occupied Syria. Little more than a shallow creek, the Hasbani is flanked by dense thickets of oleander and rhododendron bushes and winds through a narrow gorge. In 2010, Khalil Abdullah, a local businessman, and his sister, Zahra, began constructing a tourist complex of swimming pools, chalets, and restaurants on the river bank. The Qaryat Hosn el Wazzani facility has steadily grown and is a popular spot for relaxing, eating, and swimming in the cool river [waters] during the blazing heat of summer. The Israelis have eyed the expanding tourist site with unease, and soldiers often stand on the river’s edge, ending up just a few feet from Lebanese diners and swimmers … A bigger problem, perhaps, is that a newly built restaurant extending into the river may have actually crossed the blue line. UNIFIL cartographers are trying to assess the exact path, which may have changed because of construction work on the tourist site …

http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2014/0506/Whose-water-is-it-anyways-Resentment-pools-on-Israel-Lebanon-border

Wasser für die Stadt von morgen

05.05.2014 15 Prozent des Regenwassers wollen die Emscher-Städte innerhalb von 15 Jahren von der Kanalisation abkoppeln. Das verabredeten sie in der Zukunftsvereinbarung Regenwasser. Mit der Initiative „Wasser in der Stadt von morgen“ soll der nächste Schritt folgen … Eine nachhaltige Wasserwirtschaft stärke den urbanen Wasserhaushalt, mindere Hochwassergefahren, wirke klimaausgleichend und bringe Wasserflächen in die zubetonierten Stadtquartiere zurück … „Damit leistet integrale Wasserwirtschaft einen bedeutenden Beitrag für das Leben in den Städten und Metropolregionen von morgen“ … „Anpassung an den Klimawandel, demografischer Wandel und zukunftsfähige Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung sind zentrale Themen der Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie des Landes. Die integrale Wasserwirtschaft kann hierbei eine wichtige Rolle einnehmen. Dies zeigt beispielhaft der Emscher-Umbau“ …

http://www.derwesten.de/staedte/bottrop/wasser-fuer-die-stadt-von-morgen-id9313395.html

EMSCHERGENOSSENSCHAFT und LIPPEVERBAND

http://www.eglv.de/wasserportal/aktuelles/emscher-dialog-2014.html

Energie und Wasser für die MENA-Region: Chancen in der Krise

06/05/2014 – … Auch in den ölreichen Regionen Nordafrikas und im Mittleren Osten wächst der Bedarf an erneuerbaren Energien. Wasser spielt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle, doch das "blaue Gold" ist rar und es gibt zahlreiche Zielkonflikte. Im Juni 2014 wird sich das zweite Arabische Forum für Erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz mit einer drängenden Frage befassen: Wie können in der Region Naher und Mittlerer Osten und Nordafrika (MENA) erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz zur Deckung des Energiebedarfs, zur Verminderung der Treibhausgasemissionen und zu wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung beitragen? Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien ist in der Tat extrem wichtig – ebenso notwendig ist jedoch die Aufmerksamkeit für eine andere Ressource: Wasser. Denn die Wechselwirkungen zwischen beiden Ressourcen und der Wettbewerb um ihre Nutzung werden immer stärker. Daher werden dringend integrierte Ansätze für den Wasser-Energie-Nexus benötigt, die regionale Verwundbarkeiten wie Armut, Nahrungs- und Ressourcenknapp­heit mindern und politische Stabilität fördern können. Der Energiebedarf in der MENA-Region wird in den nächsten Jahrzehnten um durchschnittlich sechs bis sieben Prozent pro Jahr zunehmen und sich in einigen Ländern bis 2020 verdoppeln … Die steigende Nachfrage lässt sich nur mit einem diversifizierten Energiemix decken … wird in den meisten Verfahren zur Energiegewinnung- und -erzeugung Wasser genutzt … der Druck auf die Wasservorkommen wächst. Schon heute ist die MENA-Region von einer akuten Wasserkrise geprägt: Es wird mehr Wasser entnommen, als sich neu bilden kann, und bis 2050 wird die Nachfrage fünfmal so hoch sein wie heute – dies würde die verfügbaren Wasserressourcen um 50 Prozent übersteigen … Die größte Gefahr der Energie- und Wasserkrisen in der Region besteht jedoch darin, dass sie soziale Ungleichheit verschärfen und die politische Lage weiter destabilisieren. Wassermangel etwa verringert die Erträge der Kleinbauern, steigende Energiekosten belasten kleine Unternehmen, und sowohl Wasser- als auch Energiemangel verschlechtern die allgemeinen Lebensbedingungen der Bevölkerung. Hinzu kommt, dass die aktuellen Energie- und Nahrungsmittelsubventionen zwar bestehende Regime stützen, aber auch eine ineffiziente Nutzung und Verteilung von Energie und Wasser fördern … Fakt ist: Die Risiken der Energie- und Wasserkrisen lassen sich nur mit kreativen und robusten Entwicklungslösungen in Chancen verwandeln. Nexus-Ansätze bieten solche Lösungen, wenn sie den sozioökonomischen und politischen Kontext des jeweiligen Landes berücksichtigen …

http://www.euractiv.de/sections/entwicklungspolitik/energie-und-wasser-fuer-die-mena-region-chancen-der-krise-301941

Arab Forum for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

http://css.escwa.org.lb/SDPD/3397/InfoNote.pdf

Water flows uphill? Maybe, in California drought

05/06/2014 Water has flowed from Northern California’s snow-capped peaks to the south’s parched cities ever since the California Aqueduct was built in the 1960s. Now, amid one of the worst droughts in history, state officials are considering an audacious plan to send some of the water back uphill. State water engineers say using pumps to reverse the flow of the aqueduct would be a first in a drought. It would also be a complex engineering challenge, requiring millions of dollars to defy gravity. Still, water agencies in the desperately dry farmlands around Bakersfield say the investment is worth it to keep grapevines, pistachios and pomegranate trees alive. Agencies as far north as the San Francisco Bay Area are talking about a similar project … Under the plan, water districts would be allowed to pump into the aqueduct the emergency supplies of water they store in underground reservoirs in Kern County, about two hours north of Los Angeles. That banked water and other extra supplies would raise the level of water within a small, closed section of the aqueduct. Then, pumps powered by diesel engines would push the water over locks and back upstream, against the southward pull of gravity. Farmers upstream could then pump the water out to their fields …

http://www.mercurynews.com/california/ci_25707589/water-flows-uphill-maybe-california-drought

Drought Prompts Likely Limits on Tapping Rivers

May 1, 2014 With summer approaching and California’s snowpack measuring a fraction of normal, state officials said … they will likely order farmers and other big water users to limit the amounts they take from rivers. The State Water Resources Control Board projected the curtailment letters would be sent out later this month for users on 10 different rivers and their watersheds. It would mark the first such directive since 1977 … The orders will be delivered first to junior water-rights holders — those who obtained their water rights after 1914 and whose ability to take water ranks behind pre-1914 senior rights holders. Senior holders would still be able to take water initially, and would only be ordered to curtail if conditions became even more extreme … The orders could affect supply for large water rights holders, including cities such as Sacramento, farms throughout central and northern California, and other businesses …

http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/water-curtailments-expected-california-23553071

siehe auch: April 24. 2014 California’s water wars reach ’new level of crazy‘ … California water authorities are killing salmon and destroying farming. They’re endangering shorebirds, threatening city taps and quite possibly raising the crime rate. That’s a sampling of the four dozen comments and protests on the website of the State Water Resources Control Board about emergency water management after the driest winter in decades. From all over California, farmers, environmental lawyers, wildlife groups, cities and even the Fresno County sheriff have posted thoughts in a siege of protests to state officials …

http://www.theday.com/article/20140424/NWS13/140429820/1047

und: April 18, 2014 State Water Project to make small deliveries this year … Storms in Northern California will allow the State Water Project to make small deliveries to some customers … "This is all a bit of good news in an otherwise very bleak water year," state water resources director Mark Cowin said. The changes won’t make much of a difference for most Californians …

http://www.latimes.com/science/la-me-water-allocation-20140419-story.html

A few California cities start water-waste patrols

April 27, 2014 — Steve Upton thinks of himself more as an "Officer Friendly" than a water cop. On a recent sunny day, the water waste inspector rolled through a quiet Sacramento neighborhood in his white pickup truck after a tipster tattled on people watering their lawns on prohibited days. He approached two culprits. Rather than slapping them with fines, Upton offered to change the settings on their sprinkler systems. "I don’t want to crack down on them and be their Big Brother," said Upton, who works for the water conservation unit of Sacramento’s utilities department. "People don’t waste water on purpose. They don’t know they are wasting water." At least 45 water agencies throughout California, including Sacramento, are imposing and enforcing mandatory restrictions on water use as their supplies run dangerously low. Sacramento is one of the few bigger agencies actively patrolling streets for violators and encouraging neighbors to report waste. They teach residents to avoid hosing down driveways, overwatering lawns or filling swimming pools. While gentle reminders are preferred, citations and fines can follow for repeat offenders. "We do have the stick if people don’t get it," said Kim Loeb, natural resource conservation manager in Visalia, a city of 120,000 people that has hired a part-time worker for night patrols and reduced the number of warnings from two to one before issuing $100 fines … Another emerging conservation measure is using peer pressure through bills that show how much water homeowners use each month compared to their neighbors. Studies show such programs reduce overall water use as much as 10 percent …

http://www.seattlepi.com/news/us/article/A-few-California-cities-start-water-waste-patrols-5433216.php

Historic Water Treaty – Tribe would get water supply

April 29, 2014 The Tonto Apache Tribe and Payson are in the process of working out a federal water settlement that will not only give the tribe a permanent, long-term source of water in a drought-plagued state — it will provide a major boost to the town’s efforts to complete the Blue Ridge pipeline … the current proposal would give the tribe rights to water delivered through the Blue Ridge pipeline. Currently, the tribe uses less than 50 acre-feet of water, which it buys from Payson as a regular water customer. The proposed federal settlement would provide millions in federal funds to enable the Tonto Apache Tribe to essentially buy into Payson’s Blue Ridge pipeline, to take delivery of its new water right. The tribe would continue to receive its water from Payson, but would now have its own right to water delivered from the C.C. Cragin Reservoir … The complex swamp of tribal lawsuits seeking water rights builds on the 1908 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Winters vs. United States, which held reservations have an implied water right even if water was not mentioned at the time of the creation of the reservation. A host of tribes used that decision, seeking enough water to irrigate reservation lands — which often had far less access to water than did the ancestral lands the tribes gave up — often at the point of a gun. The federal government solved the complex, overlapping water claims of the tribes piecemeal, especially in the West where water remained so scarce. The big breakthrough in Arizona came when the federal government agreed to construct the Central Arizona Project, to bring 1.4 million acre-feet of water from the Colorado River to Phoenix and Tucson. Many of the tribes with the biggest water claims remained on the outskirts of those urban areas. Settlers had repeatedly displaced the tribes farming along the Salt and Gila rivers, claiming the water and often cutting off supplies for the reservations with upstream diversions. The federal government used a large share of the water delivered in the Central Arizona Project to settle many of those water claims by the tribes … As a result of that long, complicated legal history and its small size, the Tonto Apache came late to the century-long effort by many other tribes to secure water rights …

http://www.paysonroundup.com/news/2014/apr/29/historic-water-treaty/

Beyond The “Water-Food-Energy-Climate Nexus”

29 April 2014 … In the past five years, a powerful narrative of global environmental rescue has been crafted by leaders from business and government. This new thinking, known as the “water-food-energy-climate nexus,” draws heavily on the vocabulary of sustainable development as it has evolved since the publication of the 1987 Brundtland Report, Our Common Future. But as straightforward and compelling as the concept of the nexus is, there are some important issues that it has not addressed that deserve serious thought and discussion. If these issues are neglected, implementing the recommendations that nexus proponents have developed could do more to hasten a violent future than avert one … There are at least three issues that have been neglected in the WEF report that could be critical to the success or failure of its transformative vision. First, the report asserts that “the agricultural sector, particularly in developing countries, often suffers from historically low levels of investment in technology and human capital as well as weak institutions.” … Indeed, efficient micro-irrigation technologies, such as those being used in Israel’s Negev region, could dramatically reduce the water intensity of agricultural economies while increasing their productivity … Nevertheless, it might deepen inequality and do little to enhance food security, as it could mean that the poor – fed by the inefficiently produced fruit of their own land – would eat little better than they do today. This is why the implications of a capital-intensive upgrade of the agricultural sector deserve further consideration. A second issue is closely related to the first one: nexus thinking is eloquent and compelling on the subjects of efficiency and innovation, but silent on the topics of equity and security … rising inequality and insecurity could fuel a third issue that deserves attention—the potential for violence … The prospect of urban riots and other forms of violence and instability is a real one that should be carefully considered, especially if it is likely that a nexus-inspired transformation would—at least initially– deepen economic inequality and social divisions, and reduce security. The recent experience of violence in countries such as Egypt and Syria suggests that it would be unwise to design a transformation that would require repression to sustain it. In order to avoid this, a clearer sense of the political, cultural and social implications of “the nexus” is needed. While the nexus vision is a reasonable approach to reducing waste and inefficiency, it does not yet adequately address the concern that gains will aggregate mainly into the hands of the investors, deepening inequality, fostering corruption and creating conditions ripe for instability and violence. For these reasons, it would be wise to add equity and security to the nexus.

http://isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=179227

Is India losing the water war against China?

27 April 2014 A resource struggle with China is afoot as the giant neighbour plans many dams on the Brahmaputra … What’s the biggest threat India is facing? It’s China’s growing need for water … When China’s demand for water swells, it will ruthlessly pursue its national interest and tap into resources that provide water to India, Kazakhstan, Laos and Cambodia … China’s policy on river waters itself is alarming. It believes in the Doctrine of Absolute Territorial Integrity over river waters. This doctrine calls for absolute control over river waters that originate from its territory, irrespective of what happens downstream … The Doctrine of Absolute Territorial Integrity over river waters was a theory propounded by the US first, as the Harmon Doctrine. "This was then picked up by the Russians, and now China… Though the US has abandoned this doctrine, China continues to embrace it … India, on the other hand, does not understand the value of leverage- based strategy. It gives data without reciprocal benefits. It has almost forgotten the principle of reciprocity" …

http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-is-india-losing-the-water-war-against-china-1982524

Umweltschäden: 60 Prozent von Chinas Grundwasser ungenießbar

23.04.2014 … Die Liste der Umweltprobleme in China ist lang … In China sind rund 60 Prozent des Grundwassers zu verschmutzt, um es zu trinken. Bei Messungen im vergangenen Jahr fiel die Qualität in 203 Städten als "sehr schlecht" oder "ziemlich schlecht" durch … Noch im Februar hatten Experten im Earth Security Index darauf hingewiesen, dass China und Indien, die zusammen mehr als ein Drittel der Weltbevölkerung stellen, schon bald ein massives Wasserproblem bekommen könnten … Die schlechte Wasserqualität wirkt sich nicht nur auf die direkte Trinkwasserversorgung der Menschen aus, sondern auf die gesamte Nahrungsmittelproduktion. Durch die Belastung mit Schwermetallen würden nach Schätzungen des zuständigen chinesischen Ministeriums jährlich rund zehn Millionen Tonnen Getreide vernichtet und zwölf Millionen kontaminiert. Immer wieder werden riskante Schadstoffbelastungen in Lebensmitteln bekannt … Neben China und Indien kämpfen der Nahe Osten sowie Nordafrika um eine gesicherte Trinkwasserversorgung. In den kommenden Jahrzehnten könnte sich die Situation noch verschärfen. Bevölkerungswachstum und der wirtschaftliche Aufstieg der Schwellenländer fordern immer mehr Ressourcen. Neben erheblichen Versorgungsproblemen der Bevölkerung mit Trinkwasser und Nahrung, könnte Trinkwassermangel langfristig auch zu ernsten Sicherheitsproblemen führen – bis hin zu Kriegen um sauberes Trinkwasser …

http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/china-trinkwasser-und-boeden-sind-mit-schadstoffen-verseucht-a-965691.html

Danke dem Spiegel-Leser im Verteidigungsministerium, der bei der Lektüre auch an mich gedacht hat! J.B.

Paying for giant Nile dam itself, Ethiopia thwarts Egypt but takes risks

Apr 23, 2014 Ethiopia’s bold decision to pay for a huge dam itself has overturned generations of Egyptian control over the Nile’s waters, and may help transform one of the world’s poorest countries into a regional hydropower hub. By spurning an offer from Cairo for help financing the project, Addis Ababa has ensured it controls the construction of the Renaissance Dam on a Nile tributary … The dam is now a quarter built and Ethiopia says it will start producing its first 750 megawatts of electricity by the end of this year … Addis Ababa says the price is worth paying to guarantee Egypt has no veto over the dam, the centerpiece of a 25-year project to profit from East Africa’s accelerating economic growth by exporting electricity across the region … Ethiopia’s transformation from an economic disaster barely able to feed its people into an emerging regional leader capable of self-financing mega-projects has recast diplomacy over the Nile, northeast Africa’s most important resource. Egypt, which has claimed exclusive right to control the river’s waters for generations, is fuming … Italy’s biggest construction firm, Salini Impregilo, which is building the dam, says all payments have been made on time so far and it has no worries about Addis Ababa continuing to come up with the needed billions … And the dam is just the start for Ethiopia’s ambition of becoming a regional power hub. A government plan seen by Reuters would see Africa’s second most populous nation target installed capacity of 37,000 MW within 25 years – far more than the World Bank’s estimate of just 28,000 MW for the entire current output of sub-Saharan Africa excluding South Africa … In a government white paper, Cairo calls the construction of the dam a "violation" of international legal principles, in particular the duty to prevent harm to other riparian nations … In a diplomatic coup for Ethiopia, and a political blow to Egypt, the other major down river country, Sudan, has slowly warmed to the dam project and lifted its own earlier objections. Sudan may benefit from cheap power and irrigation water …

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/23/us-ethiopia-energy-insight-idUSBREA3M0BG20140423

siehe auch: 21. März 2014 Ethiopia sees output at Africa’s biggest power plant by 2015 … Ethiopia … will be Africa’s largest power plant, the government said … Zadig Abraha, deputy general director of the GERD national coordination office …"If we’re to meet the power demand we have to construct these mega projects." Africa’s second-most populous country after Nigeria is boosting electricity output to cater for increased demand as economic growth surges … Badr Abdelatty, a spokesman for Egypt’s Foreign Ministry … said. … "Ethiopia should also respect colonial-era agreements and a 1959 accord between Sudan and Egypt that allocates all of the river’s flow excluding evaporation to those two nations” …

http://www.todayszaman.com/news-342650-ethiopia-sees-output-at-africas-biggest-power-plant-by-2015.html

Mis-measurment, Water Scarcity, and Access to Water:

Why Merely Meeting the Millennium Development Goal of Access to Safe Drinking Water Doesn’t Add Up

April 22, 2014 In 2010, the United Nations proclaimed that the world met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving the proportion of people without access to improved sources of water, five years ahead of schedule … With this metric, we had a success story to celebrate. But we may have celebrated too soon. Where do these people live who lack access to water, and why? What does access mean? What is the difference between improved water and safe water? How does drinking water relate to our total needs for water access? And, more importantly, are water needs truly met for those who have access to improved water? … Having access to drinking water equates 20 liters of water per person per day that can be obtained from a source within 1 kilometer from where it is used. Improved water is delivered to communities via infrastructure – like pipes or protected wells … Looking at the 768M without access to improved water, 83% live in rural areas, creating the appearance that water access is predominantly a problem for rural Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Asia. However, in urban mega slums like Dhaka or Karachi, people pay exorbitant costs for access to water. This statistic does not address the daily reality of water access in these slums … We can’t have meaningful dialogues about these choices until we address more focused question about water scarcity: for whom? at what cost? and at what scale? Water users and decision makers need to challenge the belief that water is a scarce resource. Cooperation among governmental and non-governmental actors, and creative problem reframing can make water a flexible resource. Rather than framing decisions in terms of winners and losers for a specific water quantity allocation, we can find creative opportunities that lead to non-zero sum solutions … Meeting the global water need is about having the ability to use water to fulfill the needs of the most vulnerable segment of our communities. We need to ask ourselves if – in our haste to meet the MDG for water – we have lost sight of meeting the real needs of people who are thirsty. There is no single metric that can capture the complexities of water scarcity, security, and sovereignty from multiple perspectives. We need to rethink water as a social and economic good with competing – and often conflicting – needs to arrive at a negotiated set of metrics – through a collaborative adaptive process, as demonstrated in our book on Water Diplomacy – for the people and the place we want to make water secure …

http://blog.waterdiplomacy.org/2014/04/mis-measurment-water-scarcity-and-access-to-water/

Drought — and neighbors — press Las Vegas to conserve water

April 20, 2014 Lake Mead, the reservoir that supplies 90% of Las Vegas‘ water, is ebbing as though a plug had been pulled from a bathtub drain … An ongoing drought and the Colorado River’s stunted flow have shrunk Lake Mead to its lowest level in generations … providing water for the nation’s driest city. Las Vegas uses more water per capita than most communities in America — 219 gallons of water per person every day — and charges less for it than many communities … the city’s future still looks drier than ever, a prospect that has prompted the water authority to eye such long-term plans as a desalinization plant in California and a $15-billion pipeline to move water here from other parts of the state. Environmentalists blast the proposed pipeline from central Nevada as irresponsible, calling it a resource grab comparable to William Mulholland’s move that created an aqueduct to transport water south from California’s Owens Valley to help expand Los Angeles a century ago … Officials say they have prepared for myriad possible scenarios, including an emergency slashing of Las Vegas‘ annual water allotment. "It’s important to remember that this would happen over a period of years, not months and not weeks," Davis said of such a cutback. "You don’t wake up one morning and ask, ‚Where did all the water go?’" … The authority has already achieved a remarkable feat: In recent years, Las Vegas and its suburbs have cut water use by one-third while adding 400,000 residents. It was done in part with a $200-million fund to provide rebates for replacing grass with desert landscapes. Las Vegas also recycles all water that goes down the drain from dishwashers, sinks, showers and even toilets, and after reprocessing, it is pumped back into Lake Mead. With each gallon returned to the reservoir, the city gets to take another out. The water authority plans to cut per-capita water use even further to 199 gallons a day by 2035, a rate still higher than California’s present average of 182 gallons. The Colorado River provides water for 40 million people across the Southwest — the majority of them in cities such as Las Vegas. The region’s population is expected to almost double by 2060. In that time, Las Vegas will gain 1 million residents, forecasters say. Many water experts say Las Vegas needs to immediately take a series of no-nonsense steps to help control its water shortage: Cut indoor as well as outdoor use; charge much more for water and punish abusers with precipitously higher rates; and start disclosing the rate of a neighbor’s water use in residential bills to create more social pressure to conserve … Worse, unlike such cities as Phoenix and Los Angeles, Las Vegas has just one major water source — Lake Mead — putting it most at risk during a prolonged drought and dwindling lake water reserves. The city receives a scant 10% of its water from underground local aquifers … The real water hog is not people, many say, but grass: About 70% of Las Vegas water goes to lawns, public parks and golf courses … The water authority is pushing forward with a plan for a 300-mile pipeline to import water from the state’s agricultural heartland. The project has touched off such old Nevada grudges as north versus south and claims about urbanites enriching themselves as the expense of rural dwellers. Environmentalists are challenging in court the right-of-way permits already secured by the water authority, and are promising a long legal battle … the American Southwest must fight its water crisis together … the seven states drawing water from the Colorado River collectively form the world’s fifth-largest economy — just behind Germany but ahead of France and Britain …

http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-las-vegas-drought-20140421,0,1495983,full.story#axzz2zbAkF0mX

Water rights ruling has some ranchers worried

April 18, 2014 Tom Mallums is a rancher and Klamath County Commissioner in the upper basin and until recently he didn’t worry about the groundwater he used to irrigate his alfalfa, grain and grasses."All of our crops are at risk now," Mallums said. "So, we might lose all of our crops."Mallum’s concern comes from a settlement between Oregon and the Klamath tribes that changes how the Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD) regulates water usage in the region.You see, not all water rights are equal. The older the claim date on surface water, the more senior the right. That means younger or junior claimants can see their water turned off if a senior water user says it’s affecting their supply.That troubles Mallum because the tribes hold the most senior water rights in the basin, but what keeps him up at night is a computer model generated by OWRD that looks at how groundwater users affect surface water users.The agency identified 130 wells (including Mallum’s) that could interfere with surface water sources, meaning he and other farmers could lose both sources of water this summer"… In arid eastern Oregon, you can’t grow anything without irrigation water."During the 2014 Legislative session, he tried to pass a law banning the use of computer modeling to determine ground and surface water interference. The bill died in committee" …

http://www.bluemountaineagle.com/water-rights-ruling-has-some-ranchers-worried-publish2_ap_2d0380ac74a3b654290646ad95c6fb1a

siehe auch: Apr. 17, 2014 Why Willamette Valley farmers should be watching water rights fight in Klamath Falls … Klamath Basin streams rely on water from groundwater during the dry, summer months. If too much water is pumped away, it impacts stream flows and water users who hold surface water rights … “We will have major, major water problems here in the Willamette Valley in the next 30 years because we are not building any new dams,” said Rep. Jim Thompson, R-Dallas. “I will tell you that will be the number one issue in terms of economic development. There just plain isn’t enough water.” He’s watching how the water rights fight resolves itself in the upper basin because he thinks it will serve as a road map for state behavior in future water fights …

http://www.statesmanjournal.com/article/20140417/UPDATE/304170062/Water-rights-ruling-has-some-ranchers-worried

Spending: cheap water is running dry

April 18, 2014 Americans, unlike people in many parts of the world, tend to take clean water for granted. For most of us, it’s also cheap: The average U.S. household pays $372 a year for drinking water, according to the American Water Works Association. But the days of leisurely showers and generously irrigated lawns could be disappearing. In California, the worst drought on record has forced some communities to impose mandatory water restrictions. Elsewhere, there’s plenty of water, but the quality is questionable … The American Water Works Association estimates that it will cost more than $1 trillion to expand and replace outdated pipes over the next 25 years, causing some homeowners‘ water bills to triple … Homeowners can prepare for rate increases by adopting measures that are already widespread in California, such as installing low-flow toilets and water-saving shower heads … One of the lessons of the recent water crises is that "we can’t take what comes out of our taps for granted," says Peter Gleick, president of the Pacific Institute, a research and advocacy group. "It’s really the one thing we can’t do without, and yet we pay less for our water than we do for our cell phones or our cable TV."

http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/sns-201403271100–tms–kplngmpctnkm-a20140418-20140418,0,482341.story

Rhein gräbt Donau das Wasser ab

17.04.2014 – 2780 Kilometer legt die Donau vom Schlosspark bis zur Mündung am Schwarzen Meer zurück, doch schon nach wenigen Kilometern gräbt Vater Rhein der Mutter Donau bei der Donauversinkung zwischen Immendingen und Möhringen das Wasser ab. An wie viel Kalendertagen genau sich der Rhein das Wasser holt ist von Jahr zu Jahr verschieden … Der Kampf um das Wasser begann vor zehn Millionen Jahren. Die schweizerische Aare war in jenem Zeitalter der Quellfluss, die Geologen sprechen von der Aare-Donau … Der Rhein hatte damals seine Quelle noch in der Nähe des Kaiserstuhls. Durch geologische Vorgänge vor rund zwei Millionen Jahren, wie dem Einbruch des Oberrheingrabens, kam es zu einer Verbindung von Aare und Rhein. Dies war der erste große Wasserverlust für die Donau … Das Projekt, das wohl am meisten Geld kostete, wurde in den 1960ern realisiert. Damals sollte der Stuttgarter Talkessel mit Donauwasser versorgt werden, das östlich von Ulm entnommen werden sollte. Die Bayern als Unterlieger jedoch verlangten die Sicherstellung, dass auch in Trockenperioden genügend Wasser fließt. Angedacht waren Speicher im Schwarzwald und ein Umleitungsstollen, der das Wasser um die Donauversinkung leitet. Dieser Stollen wurde gebaut, bei Immendingen ist der Einstieg zu finden. Das Wasser wurde auch testweise umgeleitet. Die Auswirkung auf die Aach und die dortigen Quellen, die einen Teil ihres Wassers über die Versinkung aus der Donau beziehen, wurden in diesem Zusammenhang ebenfalls untersucht. Wirklich genutzt wurde die Umleitung nie, es kam immer genügend Wasser in Bayern an …

http://m.schwarzwaelder-bote.de/inhalt.donaueschingen-rhein-graebt-donau-das-wasser-ab.c31712e5-1407-4b26-939b-7abd9aaa4d3c.html

Partnerships and collaboration are key to preserving water supply

4/11/2014 “We are literally mining our groundwater and sending it downriver.” That’s how the Metropolitan Council’s water supply manager, Ali Elhassan, describes the state and region’s primary approach to groundwater … “More than 70% of the region’s water supply comes from groundwater … Once used and expelled, it is treated and disposed of, primarily downstream via the Mississippi River … The notion that the region’s abundant and relatively cheap water supply is limitless, and therefore disposable, will cost us dearly if we don’t change our philosophy and behaviors,” he warned … communities working together will be key to addressing the region’s long-term supply issues … Ten communities in the southeast metro have formed a groundwater workgroup to collaborate with the Council on looking at the possibility of using alternative water supply sources. They will consider, for example, developing a shared water system that relies more on surface water or alternate groundwater sources. Other possibilities include re-using treated wastewater or stormwater for irrigation or to serve industrial customers, and using treated wastewater or stormwater to recharge aquifers … A group of 13 cities in the northeast metro is working with state and federal agencies to restore water levels in White Bear Lake and protect other northeast metro lakes. Options being studied include diverting St. Paul’s treated drinking water from the Mississippi River to northeast communities to decrease reliance on groundwater …

http://www.metrocouncil.org/News-Events/Wastewater-Water/Newsletters/Partnerships-and-collaboration-are-key-to-preservi.aspx

Water warrior

April 11, 2014 Water has become one of the most difficult resources to access these days … While academics, engineers, hydrologists and hydro-geologists grapple with mega issues, more skilled and engaged people are needed at the grassroot level too. Ramakrishnappa … from village Kuruburakunte near Devanahalli embodies this need and change. An agriculturist by profession he had to give up farming on his two-acre land because his 750 ft. deep borewell went dry. It reached such a stage that in 2001 his village too ran out of groundwater. Tanker water supplied infrequently became the only source and even provide the 60 to 90 litres for the milch cow became difficult. That is when he came across the concept of rainwater harvesting … A government programme brought 5,000-litre rooftop rainwater harvesting tanks to select 20 houses in the village. Thanks to Venamma, his wife, Ramakrishnappa signed up for the programme and built his own rainwater harvesting system. In a week’s time after the tank was built it rained and the tank overflowed with clean water. He realised the benefits of water harvesting and started to build and evangelise them …

http://www.thehindu.com/features/homes-and-gardens/green-living/water-warrior/article5900996.ece

Energy-Water Nexus Around the World and the Missing Link

4/10/2014 The energy-water nexus is gaining traction with diverse stakeholders around the world and it is becoming increasingly clear that we cannot plan for our planet’s future if we do not consider energy and water together … the United Nations celebrated World Water Day, launching a yearlong effort to highlight the global energy-water nexus, the chosen theme for 2014 … the biggest water users for energy production are also the world’s largest electricity generators: the United States, the European Union, China, and India … All of this adds up to a very uncertain future for the conventional use of water in global energy production. And yet for international entities like the UN and the IEA considering the full-spectrum of global resource challenges and opportunities, the energy-water nexus is just the tip of the iceberg … Energy and water are fundamentally intertwined, but the linkages of these two vital resources also greatly impact the food sector. More and more we hear about the energy-water-food nexus and how we are going to manage growing populations and the demands on all three resources. Plus, when we take into account the global impacts from climate change, we’re looking at some big challenges – but also some incredible opportunities. We need a systematic approach to solve the interconnected issues that link energy, water, food, and climate change …

http://www.forbes.com/sites/edfenergyexchange/2014/04/10/energy-water-nexus-around-the-world-and-the-missing-link/#./?&_suid=139956683596806012061732541822

Managing Climate Risk

MAR 31, 2014 – We live in an era of human-induced climate change. Though not all of the future consequences are known, the range of realistic outcomes is serious – and a scenario in which there is no impact from climate change is so unlikely that it can safely be ignored … Investments in managing those risks can be effective and affordable. Indeed, some of the most appealing responses are relatively inexpensive. Others, which require more resources, can be developed as investments that not only provide protection from climate change, but also advance competitiveness, development, and security. The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change … explicitly frames the issue as a risk-management challenge. This approach facilitates a balanced consideration of likely outcomes as well as those that are less likely but imply much graver consequences. It also capitalizes on sophisticated tools and approaches already widely used for managing risks in endeavors as diverse as national security, financial planning, and infrastructure design … It is … clear that climate change will continue, at a pace determined by past, present, and future emissions of heat-trapping gases … there are still areas of uncertainty, including the risks of major surprises, complications, or unexpected interactions … future climate change will affect people, economies, and the environment differently in different places … climate change often will act as a threat multiplier, tipping difficult situations over the edge or narrowing options for solving problems … Ambitious efforts to control emissions can decrease future warming and its risks … Progress in reducing emissions is an important part of responding to climate change, but it is not the whole solution. It is also essential to make the investments needed to deal effectively with climate change that can no longer be avoided. These investments are especially important over the next few decades, a period when much of the climate change that we will experience is already baked into the climate system, owing to past emissions and existing infrastructure … If we are smart and ambitious, addressing those risks can also create real opportunities

http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/chris-field-and-vicente-barros-highlight-the-dangers-and-opportunities-identified-in-the-ipcc-s-latest-report

Yarlung Tsangpo River is a Living Ecosystem, not Just a Source of Hydropower

5 March 2014 When India’s prime minister, Manmohan Singh, and China’s president, Xi Jinping, met in March last year, one specific item on Singh’s agenda was the need for a joint mechanism to look at China’s hydropower projects on the Brahmaputra, the river called the Yarlung Tsangpo in China. Clearly aware of the many fears these projects raise in India, Xi was quick to assure Singh that China was aware of its responsibilities towards lower riparian countries, and that he would ask his officials to consider a joint mechanism. The conversation has now been eclipsed by the row over Chinese soldiers building a structure 10 kilometres into what India considers its territory in Ladakh, near the western edge of the border between the two countries. Multiple meetings between military officials have failed to resolve the standoff at the disputed border, though both countries have so far been careful not to let the matter escalate.Meanwhile, Manmohan Singh, and India’s water resources minister, Harish Rawat, have repeated that the Chinese projects will not reduce water flow in the Yarlung Tsangpo, as they are run-of-the-river hydropower projects … But the Indian government’s own panel of experts has expressed worries that the projects will reduce water flow in the Yarlung Tsangpo, especially in the lean season … Such fears are growing, but they are not new … The essential problem … is that the “hydrocracy” treats a river as a water pipe, when it is actually a living ecosystem … These arguments are being ignored by the majority of hydrologists, power engineers and policymakers … A major problem the bureaucrats have is that the Yarlung Tsangpo does not end in India – it flows on to Bangladesh. India is now building and planning just the same kind of projects on its stretch of the Yarlung Tsangpo as China is upstream. So if India can demand a joint mechanism with China, Bangladesh can demand just the same with India, something that bureaucrats in New Delhi are loath to concede … at the level of politicians and bureaucrats, all countries are stuck in the old rhetoric. It is now clear that unless the farmers and the fishermen, the factory owners and the workers, those who row the ferries and those who ride them, are all involved in the conversation, there is little chance of a meaningful agreement. And the situation will keep getting worse as long as rivers in the basin are seen as water pipes rather than living ecosystems … “The principles and premises of riparian treaties need to be re-organised. River basins must be seen as interconnected and integrated ecosystems where all stakeholders must have a say.”

https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/6759-Yarlung-Tsangpo

Committee on Foreign Affairs of the U.S. House of Representatives

Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia, and Emerging Threats

Hearing: Water as a Geopolitical Threat

Washington, Jan 16, 2014 Archive Hearing Video + Hearing transcripts …

http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/hearing/subcommittee-hearing-water-geopolitical-threat

Dickes Dankeschön für diesen Hinweis nach Berlin an den Gendarmenmarkt! J.B.

WATERWISE

Santa Barbara County Water Agency

2014 WaterWise High School Video Contest

http://www.waterwisesb.org/contest.aspx?id=392

Armeechef lagert literweise Mineralwasser für den Notfall

13. April 2014 … Die Sicherheitslage für die Schweiz ist nach Ansicht des Armeechefs André Blattmann in den vergangenen Jahren schwieriger geworden. Er selbst bunkert als Reaktion darauf in einem Notvorrat zu Hause Mineralwasser, Konservenbüchsen und Cheminéeholz … Der Armeechef machte seine persönliche Notvorsorge am Sonntag in einem Interview mit der "Schweiz am Sonntag" publik. "Die neuen Risiken und Bedrohungen haben mich etwa vor zwei, drei Jahren sensibler gemacht", sagte er. Das Wichtigste sei Mineralwasser, "ohne Kohlensäure". Er habe etwa etwa 30 oder 40 Sechserpackungen davon – und zusätzlich eine Wasserzisterne. Eine Person benötige mindestens acht Liter Wasser pro Tag zum Trinken, Kochen und Waschen. "Stellen Sie sich einmal den Bedarf für eine Familie über ein paar Tage hinweg vor" …

http://www.thurgauerzeitung.ch/aktuell/schweiz/schweiz-sda/Armeechef-lagert-literweise-Mineralwasser-fuer-den-Notfall;art253650,3773680

Video Interview: Natural Resources and Security in Afghanistan

25 November 2013, O. Brown, Consultant for the United Nations Environment Program, reviews how the management of natural resources is linked to instability and insecurity in Afghanistan, and how the government and the international community could maximise peacebuilding opportunities that come from better natural resource management. This also includes the question how the international community can introduce safeguards into existing projects to ensure they do not inadvertently exacerbate conflict …

http://www.ecc-platform.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=4724:video-interview-with-oliver-brown-natural-resources-and-security-in-afghanistan&Itemid=750

WASSERQUELLEN

adelphi

China Environment Series 12: Water and Energy Special

23 April 2014 … a Special Review of Water-Energy Nexus Challenges in China … survey of the untapped potential of saving energy through improving water use efficiency.

http://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/china-environment-series-12

White House picks 2014 fight on climate

05/06/14 … release of a report that concludes human-generated climate change is having dramatic effects on every part of the nation. The 841-page National Climate Assessment, which the administration touted as the most comprehensive look yet at global warming in the U.S., said climate change is raising temperatures, contributing to storms, and making water more scarce and wildfires more common … The election-year report, which was three years in the making, appeals directly to the Democratic Party’s liberal base, which must come out in full force this fall if the party is to hold on to a majority in the Senate … the report also provided ammunition for

140507 Tomicek US-Klimabericht

Republicans running against an administration it says is waging a “war on coal,” and represents a danger for centrist Democrats seeking to distance themselves from some of Obama’s green-friendly policies … The administration enlisted more than 300 experts and 13 federal science agencies, along with a 60-member committee to produce the report … Obama has made fighting climate change a central part of his second term … Skeptics called the report another “scare tactic” by the administration … The highly publicized report comes on the heels of the United Nations global climate change report, which offered similar conclusions for the planet …

http://thehill.com/policy/energy-environment/205284-climate-change-affecting-every-region-of-us-new-wh-report-finds

BEZUGSDOKUMENT: U.S. National Climate Assessment

http://www.globalchange.gov/ncadac

http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/

Energy, Water, and Land Use

http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/energy-water-and-land

Water Resources

http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/water

Auch für diesen Tipp ein zweites dickes Dankeschön nach Berlin an den Gendarmenmarkt! J.B.

Environmental Peacebuilding Platform

23 April 2014 … newly launched … a joint initiative by the Environmental Law Institute, the United Nations Environment Programme, McGill University and the University of Tokyo with further partners. It reflects the research activities of these institutions over the past five years and documents current progress … Environmental Peacebuilding … Natural resources are one of a country’s most critical assets for peacebuilding. Land, forests, minerals, oil, water, and other resources are the foundations for rebuilding livelihoods and national economies. They provide jobs for reintegrating former combatants. And efforts to address corruption and improve governance often focus on natural resources and their revenues. Environmental peacebuilding incorporates natural resource management into peacebuilding activities and strategies to support security, humanitarian, and development objectives …

http://www.environmentalpeacebuilding.org/

… was sonst noch so los war:

140506 Schot NLD better oligarchs

Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung

Informationen zur politischen Bildung (Heft 321)

Zeitalter der Weltkriege

30.04.2014 Hass, Zerstörung, Millionen Tote und Verwundete – beide Weltkriege haben tiefe Spuren hinterlassen. Aber war der Erste Weltkrieg genauso total wie der Zweite? Und lassen sich die jeweiligen Kriegsziele bei diesen Auseinandersetzungen überhaupt vergleichen? … 2014 jährt sich der Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges zum 100. Mal, 2015 das Ende des Zweiten zum 70. Mal. Beide Kriege haben das 20. Jahrhundert mit ihrer Totalität und Globalität entscheidend geprägt. Dieses Heft beleuchtet Gemeinsamkeiten, aber auch Unterschiede zwischen Erstem und Zweitem Weltkrieg. Neben den Ereignissen in Europa werden auch die Kriegsgeschehnisse in den damaligen europäischen Kolonien, in Asien und im Pazifik in den Blick genommen. Der beiliegende achtseitige Kartenteil bietet hier zusätzlich Orientierung und veranschaulicht die Entwicklungen vor, während und nach den Kriegen. Dass die entsetzlichen Folgen beider Weltkriege bis heute nachwirken, zeigt sich auch an den Erinnerungskulturen in den beteiligten Ländern.

http://www.bpb.de/shop/zeitschriften/informationen-zur-politischen-bildung/183584/zeitalter-der-weltkriege

pdf: http://www.bpb.de/system/files/dokument_pdf/bpb_321_Zeitalter_der_Weltkriege_barrierefrei.pdf

Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (APuZ 18–19/2014)

Überwachen

28.04.2014 Ein Staat büßt an Legitimität ein, wenn er es nicht vermag, seine Bürgerinnen und Bürger vor Gefahren zu schützen. Vor diesem Hintergrund gelten geheime Nachrichtendienste als wichtige Instrumente der Sicherheitspolitik. Die Kritik an der Arbeit geheimer Nachrichtendienste erreicht jedoch durch die "Snowden-Affäre" eine neue Qualität … Immer deutlicher zeichnet sich ab, dass mit der globalen Digitalisierung neue Möglichkeiten für eine grenzen- und lückenlosere Überwachung entstehen – nicht nur für staatliche Dienste, sondern auch für Privatunternehmen. Und je "durchsichtiger" ein Mensch ist, desto leichter ist er zu überwachen, ist sein Handeln zu antizipieren, sind seine Bedürfnisse zu steuern. Auch diese Formen des Überwachens gilt es, stärker ins öffentliche Bewusstsein zu rücken.

http://www.bpb.de/shop/zeitschriften/apuz/183100/ueberwachen

pdf: http://www.bpb.de/system/files/dokument_pdf/APuZ_2014-18-19_online.pdf

Die Nationalhymnen der 28 EU-Mitgliedstaaten

eingespielt vom Stabsmusikkorps der Bundeswehr

http://www.bpb.de/internationales/europa/europaeische-union/171039/die-nationalhymnen-der-28-eu-mitgliedstaaten

140507 Chappatte NYT Hardball in World Politics

Beste Grüße von der Elbe

Jörg Barandat

editorial@waternews.de

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