Joerg Barandat: W A T E R I N T A K E 02/2014

W A T E R I N T A K E

02/2014

16.02.2014

"… I think the risk of conflicts over water is growing – not shrinking – because of increased competition, because of bad management and, ultimately, because of the impacts of climate change … I think the biggest worry today is sub-national conflicts – conflicts between farmers and cities, between ethnic groups, between pastoralists and farmers in Africa, between upstream users and downstream users on the same river … We have more tools at the international level to resolve disputes between nations. We have diplomats. We have treaties. We have international organisations that reduce the risk that India and Pakistan will go to war over water but we have far fewer tools at the sub-national level …"

Peter Gleick, Pacific Institute, Guardian, 9 February 2014

WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

Städte in Brasilien rationieren Wasser wegen Dürre

16.02.2014 Temperaturen von bis 50 Grad Celsius haben nicht nur den Wasserverbrauch in Brasilien rasch erhöht, sondern auch die Reserven schrumpfen lassen. Nun müssen viele Städte sparen – mit fatalen Folgen für die Menschen … Von den Einsparungen seien rund sechs Millionen Menschen betroffen, schreibt die brasilianische Tageszeitung "Folha de S. Paulo". Einige Stadtteile in der Metropole Sao Paulo erhielten nur noch für 13 Stunden pro Tag Wasser … unter Berufung auf Wasserunternehmen … sind Flüsse, Bäche und Staudämme so trocken wie seit 20 Jahren nicht mehr. Normalerweise steige der Wasserbedarf in den Sommermonaten um etwa 20 Prozent. In diesem Jahr sei der Verbrauch jedoch um bis zu 30 Prozent gewachsen. Besonders kritisch sei die Lage für das Cantareira System, dem größten in Sao Paulo, das rund neun Millionen Menschen in der Stadt versorgt. Aufgrund ausgebliebender Regenfälle im Dezember und Januar seien die Reserven auf 19 Prozent zurückgegangen … Für die Kleinbauern ist es am schlimmsten: Durch die extreme Trockenheit verlieren viele ihre wirtschaftliche Existenz … Wegen der anhaltenden Hitzewelle sind nun auch viele Fußballfans besorgt. In nur vier Monaten startet die Fußball-WM in Brasilien. Die Amazonas-Stadt Manaus dürfte neben den WM-Spielorten im Nordosten Brasiliens – Recife, Fortaleza, Natal, Salvador – zu den heißesten der zwölf Austragungsstädte gehören. Dort liegen die Temperaturen auch im Juni und Juli – im brasilianischen Winter – um die 30 Grad …

http://www.dw.de/st%C3%A4dte-in-brasilien-rationieren-wasser-wegen-d%C3%BCrre/a-17435939

siehe auch: Feb 15 2014 Water being rationed in 140 Brazilian cities – Drought worst to hit Brazil in decades as searing heat wave continues …

http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2014/02/15/water_being_rationed_in_140_brazilian_cities.html

Works on creation of water reserve underway in Turkmenistan

15 February 2014 The active accumulation of water is underway in Turkmenistan’s water reservoirs in order to create the necessary reserves for various needs of the national economy, Turkmen Dovlet khabarlary (TDH) state news service reported … Local hydro-builders are carrying out work on increasing the volume of ’15 years of independence of Turkmenistan‘ and Hauzhan water reservoirs, which are among the largest reservoirs in the country … The ongoing activities to collect water flowing down the slopes of Kopet Dag, will create additional water resources … In addition, the departments of the country’s Ministry of Water Industry are completing the construction of a new water reservoir on River Gozganchay in Kaahka district of the Akhal province. The volume of the artificial pond designed to collect mud waters, will amount to 5.2 million cubic meters, which will allow to irrigate up to 1,500 hectares of land. The volume of the pool to supply the locals with drinking water is 500,000 cubic meters. A new water reservoir with capacity of 20.5 million cubic meters is under construction in Kunya Urgench district of Dashoguz province … Turkmenistan grows cotton, wheat, rice and sugar beet.

http://en.trend.az/capital/business/2242441.html

Water crisis brings threats of Mideast war, terrorism

Feb. 14, 2014 — Satellite data released by the University of California, Irvine, shows the world’s water supply is disappearing fast because of agricultural demand, an expanding population, energy production and climate change, with the Middle East, Africa and Asia in particular facing crisis in the next few years. Another study, this time from the Pacific Institute of Oakland, Calif., which monitors global water and security issues, reports a fourfold increase in violent confrontations over water in the last 10 years. Together, these studies present an extremely bleak picture of how vast areas of the planet, from California to the Asian Steppe, are heading for severe, and probably deadly, water shortages. "I think the risk of conflicts over water is growing — not shrinking — because of bad management and, ultimately, because of the impact of climate change," Pacific Institute director and co-founder Peter Gleick told the British newspaper the Guardian …

[http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/feb/09/global-water-shortages-threat-terror-war]

… James Famiglietti, a hydrologist at the University of California, notes that on the satellite images the biggest water losses appeared as red hotspots. "Almost all of those correspond to major aquifers of the world," he said in the report. "What Grace shows us is that groundwater depletion is happening at a very rapid rate in almost all of the major aquifers in the arid and semi-arid parts of the world." The water losses are immense. According to Grace mission data, published by the Guardian, in seven years starting in 2003, parts of Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Iran along the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers lost 144 cubic kilometers (34.5 cubic miles) of fresh water. Iran is facing a shortage so severe, the government is making contingency plans for rationing in the greater Tehran area, which has a population of about 22 million. Experts blame climate change, wasteful irrigation practices and a depletion of groundwater as the key factors behind the worsening shortages … Water shortages in the United Arab Emirates are so severe the Persian Gulf federation is reported using non-conventional resources, such as desalination, treated wastewater and even cloud-seeding, to help it through the unfolding crisis. "For us, water is now more important than oil," Gen. Sheik Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan, the Emirati crown prince, told a recent international water conference in Abu Dhabi …

http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2014/02/14/Water-crisis-brings-threats-of-Mideast-war-terrorism-report/UPI-42231392412195/

BEZÜGE: Pacific Institute of Oakland – Water and Conflict

http://pacinst.org/issues/water-and-conflict/

NASA Grace Mission

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/Grace/index.html

Streit ums Wasser im Nahen Osten

14.02.2014 Wie viel Wasser hat ein Palästinenser täglich zur Verfügung? Eine Antwort auf die Frage von EU-Parlamentspräsident Schulz zu finden, ist nicht einfach … Neben vielen anderen Streitfragen im Nahen Osten ist vor allem das Wasser ein Politikum, weil es davon grundsätzlich zu wenig gibt und es zudem zwischen rund sieben Millionen Israelis, rund zwei Millionen Palästinensern in der Westbank und etwa einer weiteren Million im Gazastreifen aufgeteilt werden muss … Ob es dabei gerecht zugeht, ist eine Frage, die sich nicht nur Martin Schulz stellt … Die Antwort darauf wird je nach politischer, religiöser und ethnischer Zugehörigkeit anders ausfallen … Wie aber sehen die Fakten aus? Zunächst einmal ist festzuhalten, dass die Wasserversorgung allein in den Händen der israelischen Regierung liegt. Das hat vor allem geografische Gründe: Große Wasserspeicher wie der See Genezareth befinden sich auf israelischem Gebiet. Seit Jahrzehnten wird hier nach Ansicht von Umweltschützern viel zu viel Wasser entnommen. Die Folge: Der Jordan, der den See von den Golanhöhen her speist, wird hernach zum Rinnsal. Für die Dörfer in der Westbank weiter flussabwärts bleibt kaum etwas übrig. Dennoch ist es den Palästinensern verboten, auf eigene Faust neue Brunnen zu bohren. Ein Umstand, der vor allem den Landwirten im Süden der Westbank zunehmend die Existenz raubt … Hinzu kommt eine immense Verschmutzung – zum Großteil wegen fehlender Kläranlagen und schützender Maßnahmen auf palästinensischer Seite … Wer herausfinden will, wie viel Wasser pro Tag Israelis und Palästinensern jeweils zusteht, stößt auf eine Flut von Zahlen, die je nach Herkunft verschieden sind …[Beispiele verschiedener Statistiken vunterschiedlicher Quellen und Autoren] … Der Streit um Zahlen bringe jedoch niemanden weiter, so Bromberg [Vorsitzender von Friends of the Earth Middle East]. "Es ist schade, wenn etwas, das so wichtig für die Menschen ist, zu einem politischen Zirkus verkommt." Anstatt das Wasser und dessen Schutz als "politische Geisel" zu benutzen, gehe es darum, zu handeln. Auch im Rahmenplan für einen künftigen Frieden sollte den Palästinensern "ein gerechter Zugang zum Wasser" gewährt werden. "Andererseits müssen so schnell wie möglich die weitere Verschmutzung und der Missbrauch von Wasser in der Region gestoppt werden." Viel Zeit bleibe dafür nicht mehr, warnt Bromberg.

http://www.dw.de/streit-ums-wasser-im-nahen-osten/a-17429565

siehe auch: 12.02.2014 Martin Schulz in Israel – Der inszenierte Eklat

… Die perfektionierten und hochmodernen Propagandisten beider Seiten haben das Wasser und die Natur für sich entdeckt, um so ihre Botschaften für eine des Konflikts müden Öffentlichkeit aufzufrischen. Junge Palästinenser beschwerten sich darüber, dass ihnen weniger Wasser zustehe als den Siedlern oder anderen Israelis … Und weil die Israelis zwar die Nachbarn sind und mächtig, es aber für Palästinenser keine verlässlichen behördlichen Beschwerde- oder wenigstens Kommunikationskanäle gibt, werden europäische Besucher auf ihren Reisen schon mal als Kummerkasten benutzt … Martin Schulz sammelte diese Informationen, ohne sie sich zu eigen zu machen, ohne etwas zu versprechen. So kam die Wasserfrage auch in seine Knessetrede … Schulz wählte einen persönlichen, einen ehrlichen Mittelweg und verschwieg nicht, dass die Abgeordneten selbst sich ihrer Verantwortung zu stellen haben. Die waren aber längst vor seinem Erscheinen im Plenarsaal auf Hochtouren. Abgeordnete der Rechten hatten sich mit Kollegen gezofft, die Streitlust war geweckt. Als Schulz mit seiner Rede begann, waren Mimik und Körpersprache von drei oder vier Abgeordneten der hinteren Bänke eindeutig. Man wartete auf irgendein Stichwort zum Skandal. Das Wasser brachte dann das Fass zum Überlaufen. Schulz erzählte, was ihm der junge Palästinenser berichtet hatte, wohlgemerkt ohne es als Tatsache zu behaupten. „Lüge! Lüge!“ rief eine Abgeordnete dazwischen, setzte sich kurz, um dann, als der Redner die Zwei-Staaten-Lösung zitierte, in absehbarer Empörung den Raum zu verlassen, zwei oder drei Kollegen folgten ihr … Schulz beendete seine Rede unter großem Applaus der Sozialisten und einiger liberaler Abgeordneter, Netanjahu blieb sitzen und gab sich blasiert. Tagelang hatte er ein Drama darum veranstaltet, ob er den Präsidenten des Europäischen Parlamentes überhaupt empfangen würde, um es dann, absehbarerweise doch zu tun. Beim Hinausgehen waren die israelischen Journalisten und Mitarbeiter der Knesset erstaunt über unser Staunen. Eklat in der Knesset – das ist schließlich für jeden politisch interessierten Deutschen die Kreuzworträtsellösung für: diplomatischer GAU in drei Worten. Die Gastgeber verstanden die Aufregung nicht: „Das machen die doch immer so“ belehrten sie uns, maximal gelangweilt. Standing Ovations von der einen Seite, Verwünschungen von den anderen, es war wohl ein ganz normaler Tag in der Knesset.

http://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/martin-schulz-in-israel-der-inszenierte-eklat-12798419.html

Turkey, Egypt in fresh diplomatic row over Ethiopia dam

13 February 2014 Turkey responded on Thursday to Egyptian criticism on the construction of a controversial dam on the Blue Nile River, saying the accusations against the Turkish government are baseless. The Ethiopian dam, called the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, appears to be the latest hitch between Turkey and Egypt, both of which have mutually expelled each other’s ambassadors in a bitter row over the toppling of Egypt’s former President Mohammed Morsi in a coup last year … Egyptian Irrigation Minister Mohamed Abdel-Muttalib said earlier this week that Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu offered Turkish expertise on Ethiopia’s multi-billion dollar hydroelectric dam project when he visited Addis Ababa last month. "What I want to say is that when Turkey built the Atatürk Dam, it made the Syrians and the Iraqis thirsty and ignored international agreements. I want to stress that Egypt is not Iraq or Syria, and Ethiopia is not Turkey" … Egypt, which relies heavily on the waters of the Blue Nile River, wants Ethiopia to suspend the $4.2 billion project to build the dam until its downstream impacts are determined, which Ethiopia rejects. Davutoğlu’s visit to Addis Ababa has led to accusations in the Egyptian media that Turkey and Israel are behind the controversial project. "Any side that doesn’t like Egypt could be in the scene," Abdel-Muttalib … Ethiopian Foreign Ministry spokesman … also dismissed Egyptian accusations that Turkey and Israel were behind the country’s dam project, even though he confirmed that Turkey has offered assistance for the construction of the dam …

http://www.todayszaman.com/news-339353-turkey-egypt-in-fresh-diplomatic-row-over-ethiopia-dam.html

Jordan’s Water Minister: Sector severely affected by influx of Syrian refugees

2/12/2014 … The country is among the 10 poorest in the world when it comes to water resources, and is one of the few facing a serious water problem. There have been many reasons for this over the years … Asharq Al-Awsat met Jordan’s Minister for Water and Irrigation, Dr. Hazem Al-Nasir, to discuss the water shortages facing the Hashemite Kingdom … Hazem Al-Nasir: The management of the water sector in Jordan faces a series of daunting challenges. The most important of these is the lack of water in some regions … water deficit exceeds 600 billion liters (4.54 liters = 1 gallon) of water each year. This in addition to a decline in per capita use to 70 liters per day in some areas, the growing phenomenon of illegal water use, and the absence of a national network of water canals by which water can be moved flexibly … The Ministry is overseeing plans for the establishment of a council to deal with the water situation facing the Kingdom in light of the Syrian crisis and the influx of thousands of Syrian refugees to Jordan, which already suffers from a scarcity of water resources, being one of the poorest in the world in terms of quantities. Per capita consumption of water currently stands at between 26–150 liters per day, which is around 50 cubic meters per year; average global per capita consumption is per year. Ministry of Water and Irrigation

http://www.mwi.gov.jo

http://www.mwi.gov.jo/sites/en-us/default.aspx

http://spectrum.ieee.org/image/566103

As such, the Ministry has launched an urgent plan to deal with the situation—to expedite the completion of the Disi Basin project and make it a reality after such a long wait. In fact, the Water Authority succeeded in executing the project before the summer of 2013 to meet the increased demand for water, also expediting other water projects intended to deal with the water situation in all regions. The most important project the Ministry is currently working on is a nationwide water transportation network, which began with the Disi Basin project … There is no doubt that the water and energy sectors have been severely affected by the waves of Syrian immigrants coming into Jordan, as the daily increase in their numbers is forcing us to think of new projects to improve the water situation and to adequately maintain water and sanitation services across different regions, especially in the north, where, in some areas, refugees outnumber Jordanian citizens both inside and outside the camps … [Red Sea–Dead Sea Canal project] … We are undertaking this project after having exhausted all other alternatives after the Disi Basin project … The project will be launched in the near future after plans have been finalized at a cost of 637 million dinars for the first stage, which will be financed according to a build–operate–transfer model and which will represent the first real step to a comfortable water situation in Jordan within the next five years, returning it to constant water supply … [water situation in the Arab world] … It is no secret that the issue of water is no longer just a national or a regional one, but rather a global one in a world facing the greenhouse effect, the increasing scarcity of water, the exhausting of water resources due to the lack of modern management systems and the regional and national conflicts in our region. The Arab world is most at threat given the water shortage, especially as more than 66 percent of Arab water resources come from outside … as is the case with the Euphrates, the Nile and the Jordan River—all because of the lack of unified Arab policies regarding water. Ten Arab countries are among the poorest in the world when it comes to water … The Arab strategy towards water must be crystallized and realistically applicable. A united vision will ensure that the interests of the Arab countries concerning water will be looked after. Clear policies must be adopted concurrently, which will strengthen common initiatives in this area. The fact is that the water situation in the Arab world suffers from a weakness in the structure of the sector and its resources due to the general lack of awareness and the inability of those managing water resources … so what is needed is a united Arab strategy to govern water, as it is one of the biggest problems faced by the Arab water sector.

http://en.ammonnews.net/article.aspx?articleno=24301

HINTERGRÜNDE:

„The Disi Aquifer – a silent conflict between Jordan and Saudi Arabia …”

http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/mckinney/ce397/Topics/Groundwater/Groundwater_Disi(2010).pdf

Water Management in the Disi Basin in Jordan, New Mexico State University, September 2008

http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/susdev/Reports/Jordan_Component/Jordan_Agribusiness/NMSUReport6-DisiBasin.pdf

Brazil water project, long delayed, gets election year boost

February 10, 2014 – In 2006, then President Luiz Inacio Lula de Silva, a native of Brazil’s historically drought-plagued northeast, pushed through an idea that long-suffering residents of the region had been hearing about for more than a century … he promised, Brazil would channel water to the sun-baked region from the São Francisco, the country’s second-longest river. By 2010, he said, water would be pumped over hills and into a 477 kilometer-long network of canals, aqueducts and reservoirs to quench thirsty cities and farms in four states. Eight years later, and near the end of a first term for Lula’s hand-picked successor as president, Dilma Rousseff, the project is only half built. Delayed by bureaucracy and contract problems, the cost of the government’s single biggest infrastructure venture has almost doubled to 8.2 billion reais ($3.4 billion) … Four years past the initial deadline, the project is unlikely to be finished even by the end of a possible second term for Rousseff, whose government is nonetheless accelerating construction as she vies for re-election in October. The transfer of water from the São Francisco, like many other major infrastructure projects, is the sort of investment that economists have long argued is necessary to modernize Brazil, the world’s seventh-largest economy. The country remains crippled by bottlenecks that hinder the efficient flow of goods and services, not to mention the basics needed for development of some of its poorest regions. But hobbled by bureaucracy, political squabbling, corruption and other obstacles, most infrastructure projects in Brazil take far longer than forecast or never get done at all …

http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/sns-rt-us-brazil-drought-canal-20140209,0,5330365.story

http://delhi.aamaadmiparty.org/Water-supply-inDelhi

Free water policy may end up in lot of wastage

February 09, 2014 The AAP government’s policies on water and electricity are well intended but not the best way to achieve desired goals as supply of over 600 litres of free water to Delhi residents may end up in a lot of wastage, director general of TERI RK Pachauri has warned. "The intentions are very good but I am not sure this is the best way of going about it. In the case of water and even electricity firstly you have got to look at the whole economics of water supply and power supply …You also need to make sure you bring about improvements in the system so that wastages and leakages are stopped and that the efficiency of water for instance at every stage is improved. Now, if you are going to supply something for free where is the incentive to use it efficiently … People have to realise the scarcity of something they are consuming to be able to use it efficiently. I have said this before, I am sorry I fully respect and commend the intentions but I am not too sure whether these are the best means to bring about what they want to do" … Pachauri also called for helping Pakistan in its acute power crisis and said the government should immediately reach out to its energy-starved neighbour. "It is a unique opportunity. If we have a problem with the intentions and attitudes of the people of Pakistan this is one means by which we can convince them that we are extending a hand of friendship … There has been talk about our supplying 500 MW of power to Pakistan. Why don’t we fast track that? Why don’t we do that overnight? What’s the problem? You could get into a commercial arrangement to supply them with 500 MW of power. I just don’t know why they are hesitating in something like this" … It was under Pachauri’s tenure that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 during his tenure.

http://www.ndtv.com/article/cities/aap-s-free-water-policy-may-end-up-in-lot-of-wastage-rk-pachauri-481084

CV Rajendra Pachauri http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/press/briefcv_pachauri.pdf

Studie: Wasser-Knappheit bedroht China und Indien

03.02.14 China und Indien müssen sich auf einen massiven Wassermangel vorbereiten. Mehr als die Hälfte des chinesischen Grundwassers ist durch die Agrarwirtschaft verdreckt. In Indien soll im Jahr 2025 die Grenze zur absoluten Wasserknappheit überschritten werden … Earth Security Index … Die auf der Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz vorgestellte Studie bewertet die weltweite Entwicklung der Bereiche Ressourcen, Finanzen und Gesellschaft …

http://deutsche-wirtschafts-nachrichten.de/2014/02/03/studie-wasser-knappheit-bedroht-china-und-indien/

BEZUGSDOKUMENT:

Earth Security Initiative (ESI) … a strategic platform anticipating the complex resource risks and vulnerabilities that will affect global industry and geopolitics, identifying opportunities for more resilient investments …

http://earthsecurity.org

The Earth Security Index 2014 – A dashboard for the transition to a resource secure future

http://earthsecurity.org/index/EarthSecurityIndex.pdf

WASSERQUELLEN

Post-2015 Development Agenda

UN-Water Presents Technical Advice on Possible Water Goal

06.02.2014 – In a one-year-long expert consultation process, UN-Water’s 31 Members from the United Nations system and 36 international Partners have come together to analyze what role water could have in the Post-2015 Development Agenda. The result is a consolidated technical advice from the UN system to Member States to prioritize water through a dedicated global goal with five interlinked targets. The proposed goal builds on and extends existing commitments such as the Millennium Development Goals and the priorities agreed at Rio+20 … Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) … have served as a shared framework for global action and cooperation on international development. As the 2015 target date for achieving the MDGs approaches, the UN is working with governments, civil society and other partners to build on the momentum generated by the MDGs and shape a new development framework beyond 2015 that builds on the MDGs, but also addresses weaknesses, including by reflecting previously omitted issues …The global goal for water is supported by a coherent, cohesive and mutually reinforcing set of targets that will help countries reach the goal by 2030. To facilitate understanding of the multiple functions water plays in society, the framework is structured into five measurable and interconnected targets …

Target A: Achieve universal access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene

Target B: Improve by (x%) the sustainable use and development of water resources in all countries

Target C: All countries strengthen equitable, participatory and accountable water governance

Target D: Reduce wastewater pollution and improve water quality by reducing untreated domestic and industrial wastewater by (x%); increasing wastewater reused safely by (y%); and reducing nutrient pollution by (z%) to maximize water resource availability and improve water quality.

Target E: Reduce mortality by (x%) and economic loss by (y%) from natural and human-induced water- related disasters …

http://www.unwater.org/topics/water-in-the-post-2015-development-agenda/en/

Overview of the workstreams: http://www.unwater.org/typo3temp/pics/8e513e9fb8.jpg

DOKUMENT:

http://www.unwater.org/fileadmin/user_upload/unwater_new/docs/Topics/UN-Water_paper_on_a_Post-2015_Global_Goal_for_Water.pdf

Nile Basin Initiative (NBI)

Eastern Nile Council of Ministers (ENCOM) concludes 26th Meeting

03 February 2014 … the Ministers pointed out that the finite Eastern Nile water resources are facing progressively increasing pressures from population growth, rapid urbanization, high economic growth rates taking place in the basin and that the pressures are likely to be amplified due to anticipated Climate Change Impacts. They further noted that the rapid pace of water resource infrastructure development in the sub-basin makes coordinated management and operation of these structures imperative … The common institution of all Eastern Nile countries set up with so much investment in time, money and energy, has been held hostage by the freeze of Egypt and Sudan and its degree of freedom to discharge its responsibilities and deliver results curtailed for four years. The Ministers, therefore, welcome the unfreezing by Sudan and commit themselves to prevent the recurrence of such situations in the future … They call on all friends of the Nile to support their renewed effort to advance Eastern Nile cooperation …

http://nilebasin.org/newsite/index.php/news/65-eastern-nile-council-of-ministers-encom-concludes-26th-meeting

National Energy Challenges: Opportunities in Trans-boundary Water Cooperation

The water-energy nexus is one of the most important and cross cutting issues facing Sub Saharan Africa today … Most countries in the Nile Basin are undergoing rapid economic growth as indicated in the recent growing GDP trends; which, in turn, has increased demand for water, energy, and food … the Nile Basin offers huge potential for hydroelectric power generation exceeding 20 gigawatts, which largely remains untapped; with existing facilities representing about 26% of potential capacity … if each Nile Riparian State was to pursue and implement its national hydropower infrastructure development plans on the River Nile without consideration of the larger river basin context, there is a risk that some of the national hydropower investments could be sub-optimal (seen regionally) and may foreclose future development opportunities. Is there a way out? Yes, and the answer lies in trans-boundary water cooperation … Trans-boundary or basin-wide water cooperation in hydropower development and management would enable Nile riparian countries unlock and optimize the hydropower potential and allow for a more efficient location and operation of hydropower infrastructure. This would present opportunities for significant reduction in project financing risks and enhance regional cooperation and trust. It would further unlock the full productive potential of the Nile Basin for more prosperous national and regional sustainable growth. Through cooperation, riparian countries would exchange technical know-how and share related costs for very large hydropower infrastructure investments which are required to meet the region’s power demand. Countries would then embark on constructing transmission lines and interconnectors that would greatly enhance cross border power trade and markets amongst riparian countries as well as promote regional integration. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is leading efforts to transform the region’s power sector in various ways … Trans-boundary water cooperation could offer real solutions to national energy challenges if countries, while preparing their power development plans, could take into consideration the larger river basin context and ensure optimization of the development opportunities as well as efficient location and operation of the hydropower infrastructures. Cooperation in power infrastructure development would provide significant reduction in project financing; promote regional power trade and markets and improve power reliability and affordability. Riparian countries would each be able to access reliable and affordable power to meet their energy requirements. As NBI Member States governments and citizens celebrate this year’s annual Nile Day (to commemorate the establishment of NBI on 22nd February, 1999), the event is dedicated to theme of Water and Energy: National challenges, Trans-boundary Solutions. The objective is to raise awareness about the inter-linkages between water and energy and the importance of Nile cooperation in hydropower generation to overcome national economic growth challenges …

http://nilebasin.org/newsite/index.php/trending-topic/22-national-energy-challenges-opportunities-in-trans-boundary-water-cooperation#

Water Alternatives February 2014

Special issue: Informal Space in the Urban Waterscape

Searching for comparative international water research: urban and rural water conservation research in India and the United States

… Comparison is common in water management research: every table, map, and graph invites comparisons of different places and variables. Detailed international comparisons, however, seem infrequent in water resources research. To assess this perceived gap, this paper searched for examples of comparative research between two water sub-sectors in two countries using systematic bibliographic mapping procedures. It focused on rural and urban water conservation research in India and the United States … also identified different conservation emphases in the two countries, e.g., rainwater harvesting in India compared with stormwater quality management in the United States. It identified unanticipated publications and lines of comparative water conservation …

http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol7/v7issue1/241-a7-1-12

The gift of water. Social redistribution of water among neighbours in Khartoum

… Water gifts are a common strategy to satisfy water needs in the absence of sufficiently performing water networks in Khartoum, but a widely ignored topic in urban political ecology of water. This article questions the exclusive focus of political ecologists on the capitalist waterscape of the city and argues for supplementing the perspective with an in-depth analysis of the neighbourly waterscape, where water gifts are carried out. Through the analysis of interconnected waterscapes on different scales a more holistic understanding of the social construction of water supply in the city can be achieved …

http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol7/v7issue1/238-a7-1-9

‚Mafias‘ in the waterscape: Urban informality and everyday public authority in Bangalore

… investigates the phenomenon of Bangalore’s urban ‚water mafias‘, operators who extract and deliver groundwater to scores of informal residential areas in Indian cities. The term ‚mafia‘ here is treated as a semantic area of situated meanings and cultural interpretations that needs to be historicised and prised open in order to better understand how the urban waterscape is produced and inhabited. It situates the provenance and workings of mafias within wider debates on urban informality, state formation, and urban infrastructure and space. Rather than seeing mafias as filling a gap where government water supply has failed, as mainstream narratives suggest, the paper argues that mafias must be seen as formative of the post-colonial state …

http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol7/v7issue1/235-a7-1-6

WATERWISE

Shafiqul Islam: Hydropolitics of the Nile, the 18th Camel and Water Diplomacy

February 7, 2014 … A wealthy man willed his herd of camels to his three sons, allocating half for the first, one-third for the middle, and one-ninth for the youngest son. The man owned 17 camels. How can you divide 17 camels according to the father’s wishes? Killing all the camels and dividing the meat may be an optimal solution that could meet the requirements of the will, but it is not a desirable one … How do we find the 18th Camel for the Nile? … future water needs contribute to one of the most intractable hydropolitical situations of our time. In our water diplomacy parlance for the Nile – natural, societal, and political processes and variables are intricately linked – no clear solution is apparent with the current framing. Without an 18th camel for the Nile, the problem is unsolvable … three guiding ideas: First, water is a flexible resource, and flexibility can be created many ways. We need to work jointly to find what those flexible solutions might be for the Nile. Second, our joint problem solving will focus on interests, not positions. Third, we will look for mutual gains solutions with the understanding of the complexity and uncertainty associated with availability, access, and allocation of the resources related to the Nile. The problems experienced in the Nile are not entirely unique. Other large transboundary basins have competing and conflicting needs for water between upstream and downstream stakeholders …

http://blog.waterdiplomacy.org/2014/02/hydropolitics-of-the-nile-and-the-18th-camel/

Spezial-aktuell: Nexus Energie-Wasser

ISS: Energy moves and power shifts: EU foreign policy and global energy security

14 February 2014 Energy security has climbed the list of EU energy and foreign policy priorities in the last decade … Efforts have been directed at interconnecting national gas and electricity markets, diversifying energy suppliers and promoting rules-based energy trade in the wider European neighbourhood. The EU’s primary energy security goals are to reduce the strategic dependence of individual member states on single external suppliers and to ensure that energy markets are liquid, open and functioning according to stable market rules rather than power logics. Yet energy security also needs to be balanced against environmental and economic competitiveness concerns … report undertakes an appraisal of global energy trends and draws conclusions for the EU’s external energy security policy priorities, taking into account that energy mix choices, supply strategies and foreign policy remain national prerogatives. The centre of gravity for global energy markets is shifting to emerging markets, particularly in Asia. The EU is undergoing relative economic and demographic decline: retaining a major role in the global energy scene will be more and more challenging. Its ever-increasing reliance on oil and gas imports makes it more sensitive to political and commercial changes beyond its borders.

http://www.iss.europa.eu/publications/detail/article/energy-moves-and-power-shifts-eu-foreign-policy-and-global-energy-security/

DOKUMENT: http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/Report_18.pdf

SWP: Energie- und Klimaziele 2030 – Europa verspielt seine Wettbewerbsvorteile

13.02.2014 … Die Vorstellung, dass Europa bei Klimaschutz und erneuerbaren Energien international Vorreiter ist, ist überholt. Wenn es den EU-Regierungschefs nicht gelingt, sich auf ein ambitioniertes Klimaziel für 2030 zu einigen, ist die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der EU gefährdet … China und die USA haben die EU beim Ausbau der Windkraft abgehängt, bei der Photovoltaik ist China unangefochten führender Hersteller. Die Energieeffizienz ist ebenfalls kein Terrain, das die Europäer alleine beherrschen. So machen auch China, Japan, Indien und die USA den Autoherstellern strenge Vorgaben für die Verringerung des Spritverbrauchs. Und auch die vermeintlich unübertroffenen deutschen Energiestandards am Bau haben einige Staaten hinter sich gelassen … ein Nachlassen in der Klima- und Energiepolitik könnte dazu beitragen, dass Europa sehr schnell zurückfällt, wo derzeit noch Wettbewerbsvorteile bestehen. Die Auswirkungen wären gravierend, nicht nur für das Klima, sondern auch für die zukunftsträchtigen europäischen Schlüsselbranchen und ihre Beschäftigten …

http://www.swp-berlin.org/de/publikationen/kurz-gesagt/kurz-gesagt-energie-und-klimaziele-2030-europa-verspielt-seine-wettbewerbsvorteile.html

February 2014 Europe’s path to a successful low-carbon economy

http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/fachpublikationen/Droege_staying_with_the_leaders_AcrobatNochmal2.pdf

CNAS: Energy Rush: Shale Production and U.S. National Security

February 6, 2014 … calls for policymakers and military leaders to reassess U.S. strategy to “safeguard the physical oil trade, new criteria for the use of strategic reserves, new potential energy export opportunities and new possibilities for energy-focused trade arrangements” … states that civilian and military leaders must adapt policies and recast strategic relationships and military commitments to better-fit complex and volatile global energy markets.

http://www.cnas.org/energy-rush#.UvVWonddXgI

US-SSI: New Realities: Energy Security in the 2010s and Implications for the U.S. Military

January 08, 2014 The rapidly changing global energy supply situation, coupled with a host of social, political, and economic challenges facing consumer states, has significant implications for the United States generally and for the U.S. military specifically. The U.S. Army War College gathered experts from the policymaking community, academia, think tanks, the private sector, and the military services at the Reserve Officers Association in Washington, DC on 19-20 November 2013 to address first the major ‘new realities’ both geographically and technologically and then the specific military implications. This compendium of executive summaries is based on the presentations delivered at that conference, which was funded through the generous support of the U.S. Army War College Foundation.

http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1194

… was sonst noch so los war:

Brookings: Arab World Learning Barometer

February 12, 2014 … a new report and online interactive that show how the challenges in providing good-quality education in the Middle East and North Africa threaten to undermine the region’s economic growth and political stability … discussed the links between education and employment, with a special focus on the region’s youth bulge and its particular implications … noting first the progress in getting children into school but also three ways in which we need to expand our attention … we need to:

– "start focusing more on those that are children being left behind, the disadvantaged groups."

– "pay a lot more attention to the quality of education and what kids are actually learning when they are in school."

– "look at secondary and post-secondary education to complement what’s been going on in primary, and especially relevant to today what kind of skills are children getting while in school that prepare them for the labor market."

… good news … is that "children are getting into school" and "over 90 percent are completing their primary education." But like the diversity of income, enrollment ranges throughout the region, from 40 percent (secondary school enrollment) in Yemen to 95 percent in Oman … "Forty-five percent of poor rural women in Egypt have less than 2 years of education compared to only 1 percent of rich urban men" … there is a problem with the curriculum that is too traditional, that is too much based on rote learning, learning things by heart" … "whatever the curriculum is, it is not delivered in an effective way." … nothing in the education system that will encourage analytical thinking …

http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/brookings-now/posts/2014/02/experts-see-grim-picture-in-state-of-education-in-arab-world

Arab World Learning Barometer

http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/2014/arab-world-learning-barometer

… und dann noch zum guten Sch(l)uß:

140214 Steve Sack

… + wie gut, dass ab jetzt wieder regiert wird:

140216 Stuttmann

Beste Grüße von der Elbe

Jörg Barandat

editorial@waternews.de

Ein Gedanke zu „Joerg Barandat: W A T E R I N T A K E 02/2014

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