|W A T E R I N T A K E
… Joint management of Europe’s international rivers has a long and complex history … equitable, efficient and collaborative management of transboundary water resources is an essential element for sustainable development, security and stability … EU stands ready to share our experience and expertise … We also support other relevant instruments which promote sustainable management of transboundary river basins … in particular the 1997 New York Convention which should come into force … we are convinced that water should be thoroughly addressed in … the post-2015 UN development framework …
Patricia Flor, EU Special Representative for Central Asia
Conference on Water Cooperation, 20-21 August 2013, Dushanbe
Sunita Narain: Ganga needs water, not money
print edition Feb 15, 2014 It was way back in 1986 that Rajiv Gandhi had launched the Ganga Action Plan. But years later, after much water (sewage) and money has flowed down the river, it is as bad as it could get. Why are we failing and what needs to be done differently to clean this and many other rivers? Pollution in the Ganga remains a tough challenge … Pollution hot spots, the megaand fast-growing cities along the river, present a grimmer picture … But what is worrying is that in all the stretches pollution is getting worse. This is not surprising given that all along this heavily populated stretch fresh water intake from the river is increasing. Water is drawn for agriculture, industry and cities but only waste is returned to the river … A comprehensive solution to the Ganga pollution lies in dealing with three problem areas: one, finding water to dilute and assimilate waste; two, finding innovative ways to check the growing quantum of untreated sewage discharged into the river; and three, fixing the enforcement to stop industries from discharging waste into the river. This will require facing the facts squarely … In this way, the plans would accept the need to design affordable water and sanitation solutions. Current situation requires Central government assistance for capital and operational costs of sewage treatment plants. This is not tenable in the long run. Nor does it encourage states to release more water for pollution control. Central government funding should, therefore, be conditional; it should match the quantum of ecological flow released by the state in the river. So the Ganga and all other rivers can be cleaned. But not until we learn pollution control with a difference …
Water crisis: Delhi to revive rain water harvesting in schools
Feb 2, 2014 To address the issue of water crisis in the national capital, Delhi government has decided to revive the "non-functional" rainwater harvesting systems in schools to raise the ground-water level. Around 800 government-run schools have RWH pits and more than 50 per cent of them are non-functional … Delhi government officials said a team comprising of engineers, scientists and advisors along with two education coordinators has been formed by Education Minister Manish Sisodia for the exercise … "The RWH system captures rainwater and transfers it to an underground pit where it passes through filters like gravel, sand and boulders. The purified water then goes deep down and increases the ground water level," Ankit Srivastava, an environment engineer, said. "The aim is to encourage rainwater conservation and to improve the ground water level" …
California drought: State Water Project will deliver no water this summer
01/31/2014 For the first time in its 54-year history, the State Water Project, a backbone of California’s water system, will provide no water to urban residents or farmers this year because of the severe drought … The announcement does not mean that communities will have no water this summer. But it does mean that every region is largely on its own now and will have to rely on water stored in local reservoirs, pumped from underground wells, recycled water and conservation to satisfy demand. Silicon Valley and parts of the East Bay … who receive 80 percent of their water each year from the State Water Project — will feel the impact the most … Hardest hit, however, will be the state’s huge agriculture industry … Last year was the driest in the state’s recorded history back to 1850. The Sierra Nevada snowpack is at 15 percent of normal, even after a storm this week. And January set more records for lack of rainfall … The State Water Project … is a massive system of 21 dams and 701 miles of pipes and canals that moves water from Northern California to the south. It essentially takes melting snow from the Sierra Nevada, captures it and transports it … all the way to San Diego. In doing so, it provides drinking water for 23 million people … and irrigates about 750,000 acres of farmland … In November, because of the drought, officials at the state Department of Water Resources announced that summer water deliveries from the project would be only 5 percent of the amount that the farms and cities who buy water from the project have under contract. By comparison, the project allocated 35 percent last year and 65 percent in 2012 … Federal officials who run the state’s other large water system, the Central Valley Project, have not yet made an allocation announcement, but are expected to by mid-February, and that number also will be very low, further impacting farmers and some cities.
Its Great Lake Shriveled, Iran Confronts Crisis of Water Supply
JAN. 30, 2014 … Iran is facing a water shortage potentially so serious that officials are making contingency plans for rationing in the greater Tehran area, home to 22 million, and other major cities around the country. President Hassan Rouhani has identified water as a national security issue, and in public speeches in areas struck hardest by the shortage he is promising to “bring the water back.” Experts cite climate change, wasteful irrigation practices and the depletion of groundwater supplies as leading factors in the growing water shortage. In the case of Lake Urmia, they add the completion of a series of dams that choked off a major supply of fresh water flowing from the mountains that tower on either side of the lake … Iran’s water troubles extend far beyond Lake Urmia, which as a salt lake was never fit for drinking or agricultural use. Other lakes and major rivers have also been drying up, leading to disputes over water rights, demonstrations and even riots. Major rivers near Isfahan, in central Iran, and Ahvaz, near the Persian Gulf, have gone dry, as has Hamoun Lake, in the Afghanistan border region. Dust from the dry riverbeds has added to already dangerously high air pollution levels in Iran, home to four of the 10 most polluted cities in the world … Lake Urmia … Environmentalists are warning that the dried salt could poison valuable agricultural lands surrounding the lake, and make life miserable for the three million people who live in its vicinity. Dam construction … driving force is the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, which through its engineering arm, Khatam al-Anbia Construction, builds many of the dams in Iran and surrounding countries … In a 2005 book that he wrote on national security challenges for Iran, Mr. Rouhani estimated that 92 percent of Iran’s water is used for agriculture, compared with 80 percent in the United States (90 percent in some Western states). “They turn open the tap, flood the land, without understanding that in our climate most of the water evaporates that way,” said Ali Reza Seyed Ghoreishi, a member of the local water management council … Mr. Ranaghadr, who grew up around the lake … “You know what the real problem is?” he said. “Everybody across the world is only thinking of money. We did, too, and now our lake is gone.”
[J.B. Danke für den Hinweis an den Berliner Gendarmenmarkt!]
California American Water Provides Educational Water Videos to Customers Online
Jan 30, 2014 — Three new videos about water conservation, the value of water and how California American Water provides water to its customers are now accessible … can be found on California American Water’s website …
Water issue graver than terrorism
January 29, 2014 – Several lawmakers from the treasury and the Opposition benches in the National Assembly … expressed concern over construction of dams by India on the waters of Pakistan, cautioned the water issue was even more serious than terrorism and required immediate measures to tackle it. The legislators from both the sides of the aisle … came up with different proposals, including construction of small dams, review of Indus Water Treaty and saving of floods water, etc. … Taking part in the debate on the issue of construction of dams by India, Javed Ali Shah suggested reviewing Indus Water Treaty in length. “This must be the first priority as it is even more serious than terrorism,” he added. Naeema Kishwar, on her turn, suggested that there was a need to focus on available resources in the country to save the water getting waste. She further opined to take up the matter of water with Afghanistan. Taking the floor, Qaumi Watan Party (QWP) chief Aftab Sherpao spoke at length against the construction of Kalabagh Dam [Punjab Province /Pakistan], saying the three provincial assemblies had already passed a resolution against it. “Without consensus dams could not be built anywhere” … It was also suggested that the government should go for non-controversial water reservoirs to meet the irrigation needs. They said India was constructing dams on Pakistani waters, which would badly affect the industrial and agriculture sectors …
Water projects: Japanese keen to expand Saudi role
28 January 2014 … Japan is seeking to strengthen its presence in the Saudi water sector by offering new technology and products … Eight leading Japanese companies, including Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), Azbil Corporation, Kubota Corporation, Toray Industries Inc. and Toyobo Co., introduced their newly developed technology with the objective of marketing it in the Kingdom …
Water, energy ‘not cheap anymore’
24 January 2014 … Neither our water nor our energy can be considered cheap anymore and the significant increase in the price of natural gas in the GCC has made water costlier too, delegates at the closing conference session of the World Future Energy Summit (WFES) and International Water Summit (IWS) in Abu Dhabi heard … “The link in the Gulf region between water and energy is very strong,” added Mahmoud Dawoud, water resources adviser at the Environment Agency Abu Dhabi (EAD), noting that 30-40 percent of energy consumption in the GCC is for water production. “To tackle this problem, Abu Dhabi is exploring the potential of solar-powered water desalination and projects to reclaim wastewater” …
At Kaladera farmers battle beverage giant
January 23, 2014 Farmers in this Rajasthan block blame the drastic fall in groundwater table on the bottling plant, saying it draws out far more water than can be naturally recharged. Till the late 1990s … farmers around Kaladera, used to irrigate … drawing water from a well. “Water was easily available at about 40 feet. But it dropped annually by one or two feet and later by eight or ten feet” … Today … the well appears no more than a relic. Since 2000, the groundwater levels at Kaladera have dropped so sharply that even wells deepened to 80 feet couldn’t satisfy irrigation needs … Farmers of the region blame the drastic fall on the bottling plant set up by Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverage, which allegedly draws far more water than can be naturally recharged … While the beginning of Coca-Cola’s operations coincided with the start of Kaladera groundwater getting depleted rapidly, there are several reasons, including increased extraction by farmers through motorised pumps and the setting up of other water-intensive industries such as paper mills. For the farmers, however, the multinational beverage giant is the main culprit … Groundwater officials, however, do not see Coca-Cola as the main culprit … According to Coca Cola, the decline in the groundwater level is a regional problem and attributing it to the plant will be unfair.
Drinking water: Extreme weather events threaten quality
January 22, 2014 Australia’s drinking water is highly vulnerable to weather extremes, and utilities need to act to limit the risks … Researchers surveyed operations of 41 utilities in the two countries, including Sydney Water and Melbourne Water, and found that climate change may affect the quality of drinking water as much as its availability. The biggest risk comes from a combination of unusual weather-related events, such as a drought followed by bushfires and then a flood, rather than a single extreme phenomenon … Following the release of the report, “Water quality impacts of extreme weather-related events“, researchers are now examining how tolerant communities are willing to be when water quality is threatened by extremes …
Water Shortages Slow Energy Production Worldwide
20 January 2014 The World Bank is launching a new initiative at the World Future Energy Summit and International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi that will help developing countries better plan and manage scaling-up energy capacity to meet rising demand, in tandem with water resource management … By 2035, the world’s energy consumption will increase by 35 percent, which in turn will increase water consumption by 85 percent, according to the International Energy Agency. “The world’s energy and water are inextricably linked. With demand rising for both resources and increasing challenges from climate change, water scarcity can threaten the long-term viability of energy projects and hinder development,” said Rachel Kyte, World Bank Group Vice President and Special Envoy for Climate Change. Part of the challenge for the energy sector is the competing demand for water … cities in developing countries will be under tremendous pressure to meet the demand for food, energy, and water services … Thirsty Energy is a global initiative aimed to help governments prepare for an uncertain future by: identifying synergies and quantifying tradeoffs between energy development plans and water use, piloting cross-sectoral planning to ensure sustainability of energy and water investments … Failing to anticipate water constraints in energy investments can increase risks and costs for energy projects. In fact, the majority of energy and utility companies consider water a substantive risk and report water-related business impacts … Solutions exist, but countries must continue to innovate and adapt policies and technology to address the complexity of the landscape. These solutions include technological development and adoption, improved operations to reduce water use and impacts in water quality, and strong integrated planning. “We cannot meet our global energy goals of extending access to the poor, increasing efficiency and expanding renewables without water. The water energy interrelationship is critical to build resilient as well as efficient, clean energy systems. The time to act is now,” said Kyte.
Scaling Up Water Sustainability
JAN 15, 2014 – Since 2000, when the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were adopted, the global community has rightly focused significant attention on providing access to basic water and sanitation services. From 1990 to 2010, more than two billion people gained access to improved water sources. As the United Nations prepares to adopt so-called Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as the post-2015 successor to the MDGs, the high-stakes business of large-scale water infrastructure should be placed front and center. The conventional wisdom has been that improved access to water depends on digging wells, adopting community-based solutions, and focusing aid programs on reaching more people. But these important measures are only one part of a much larger – and more capital-intensive – strategy. According to a recent report by UNICEF and the World Health Organization on their joint monitoring program for water supply and sanitation, more than 1.2 billion of those who gained access to water from 1990 to 2008 had it piped to their premises. This number dwarfs the impact of the “small-scale” sources – from dug wells to rainwater harvesting – that many believe have done the most to solve the problem. In fact, the number of those who gained access to water was higher in the decade preceding adoption of the MDGs. India and China accounted for the vast majority of those gains, as both countries enjoyed rapid economic growth in the 1990’s and were able to lift large numbers of people out of poverty. As these examples suggest, countries have been most successful at delivering water services when they can rely on their own economic growth to bridge the gap in water-infrastructure costs. But the gap is widening. The 2013 World Economic Forum Global Risks report identified “water supply crises” as the biggest “societal risk” to global prosperity. According to some estimates, meeting the needs of a growing global economy will require the world to begin devoting at least $1 trillion annually to water infrastructure within the next 20 years – roughly double the level of annual spending today. Addressing this development challenge will require new thinking, innovation, and action in areas such as sustainable hydropower, efficient agriculture, and access to safe drinking water for cities. The first step should be ensuring that the natural infrastructure – the rivers, aquifers, and wetlands that determine the quantity, reliability, and quality of our water – can continue to function. In many cases, this is by far the most cost-effective option to ensure long-term water sustainability … Private capital – particularly the large amounts of private savings stored in middle-income countries – could, in principle, single-handedly underwrite new combinations of natural and engineered infrastructure solutions. But private capital would face significant opportunity costs, and investors are unlikely to opt for vehicles with which they have limited experience. That leaves philanthropic capital – whether from private or public sources – as a key component of early-stage investment. Philanthropy has an important role to play in bearing the risks involved while natural-infrastructure solutions establish the track record needed to tap larger sources of public and private capital. While small-scale solutions, such as dug wells, will remain an important part of efforts to ensure water security, a truly sustainable water-management path – particularly in the fast-developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa – will require hundreds of billions of dollars in infrastructure investment. The process of formulating the SDGs offers an ideal opportunity to begin describing such a path.
China’s water squeeze worsens as wetlands shrink 9 pct
January 12, 2014 – China’s wetlands have shrunk nearly 9 percent since 2003 … aggravating water scarcity in a country where food production, energy output and industrial activity are already under pressure from water shortages. China has more than a fifth of the world’s population but only 6 percent of its freshwater resources, and large swathes of the nation, especially in the north, face severe water distress. Since 2003, wetlands sprawling across 340,000 sq. km. – an area larger than the Netherlands – have disappeared … The lost wetland areas have been converted to agricultural lands, swallowed by large infrastructure projects or degraded by climate change … Wetlands store a large amount of China’s freshwater resources, and receding wetlands will leave less water available in the long term … Nearly 70 percent of China’s energy production depends on water-intensive coal power … http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014-01-12/business/sns-rt-us-china-water-20140112_1_wetlands-scarcity-freshwater-resources
Kampf um Wasser: «Feindstaaten» im Südkaukasus streiten um Staudamm
10. Januar 2014 … vertiefte ein blutiger Krieg mit Zehntausenden Toten um die Kaukasusregion Berg-Karabach und umliegende Bezirke die Gräben zwischen beiden Ländern. Ein erbitterter Streit um Wasser könnte die schwelende Situation weiter anheizen … Denn auch knapp 20 Jahre nach einem offiziellen Waffenstillstand ist der Konflikt um das von Armenien kontrollierte und von Aserbaidschan beanspruchte Berg-Karabach ungelöst. Der aktuelle Kampf um den Fluss Terter – so banal er scheint – gilt als sinnbildlich. Das autoritär regierte Aserbaidschan wirft der international nicht anerkannten Führung in Berg-Karabach vor, im Sommer kaum Wasser aus dem örtlichen Stausee Sarsang abzulassen … Im Winter wiederum öffnet das aggressive Berg-Karabach den Stausee … Auf Anfrage weist Berg-Karabach die Vorwürfe zurück … Berg-Karabach sei zu direkten Verhandlungen mit dem verfeindeten Aserbaidschan über die Verwaltung des Wassers bereit …
Will AAP’s [Aam Aadmi Party] free water scheme for Delhi increase corruption, wastage?
Dec 31, 2013 … Delhi Jal Board announced that 700 litres of water would be given free to every household in Delhi with functioning meters from 1 January. The obvious argument against this decision is that providing free water will only worsen the financial condition of the Delhi Jal Board, the regulatory body that ensures supply of water to the national capital. And as one former bureaucrat pointed out, it wouldn’t help further the cause of water conservation. "This is setting a bad precedent because instead of educating people to conserve water, there would be massive wastage. People will tinker with the meters to keep it below 700 litres a month," former Delhi principal secretary, power and industries, Shakti Sinha told CNN-IBN … Shankkar Aiyar, journalist and author … "AAP should focus on providing piped water to everyone rather than offering free water. Those who can afford to pay must be made to pay," … Himanshu Thakkar, from the NGO South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People, said that instead of giving freebies the AAP should instead ensure transparency in the supply of water. "It is the governance of Delhi Jal Board that needs to be changed. It is the most inefficient, unaccountable and non-transparent organisation. AAP needs to reverse that. However, their intention is clear. They want to give water to everyone at affordable prices but they must keep in mind that India is a water scarce country" …
siehe auch: Dec 31, 2013 Why AAP’s free water promise in Delhi is careless populism … in the end, nothing is free. Someone has to pay the price for free water. After all, supplying water costs money — the physical infrastructure and the human resources at the least. If not consumers, then taxpayers must foot the bill … Careless populism has graver consequences. The government can only provide free services as long as it has the revenue to pay for it. At some stage, careless populism means a busting of the fisc which necessitates a rise in tax rates or a cut in government expenditure, which will eventually mean the necessary reversal of populism. Freebies are not sustainable, not in a poor country like India, not in a rich country like the UK … The AAP’s Delhi water policy is careless populism … If the AAP had cared to look around for role model case studies in how to manage water, they would have found them right here in India. In 2012, Isher Judge Ahluwalia, who chaired a High level Government Committee on Urban Infrastructure wrote an article in The Indian Express in which she documented in some detail how the local authorities in Amravati, in Maharashtra’s Vidarbha region, had ensured 24×7 water supply to 20 percent of their 7 lakh residents (they were scaling it up at the time she wrote) in rapid time by using technology, sophisticated data gathering, restoration of piping systems and the imposition of differential tariffs depending on how much water was consumed. Amravati was following the example of Malkapur (also in Maharashtra) which had used similar methods to provide 24×7 water ti its 40,000 residents. Now, if Malkapur and Amravati can deliver 24×7 water supply to their residents why cannot the Government of Delhi? If the residents of Malkapur and Amravati are happy to pay for their water (tariffs go up as people consume more, but nobody gets it free) why won’t Delhiites who are, on average, more prosperous? …
Global Water Technologies releases shareholder letter with 2014 plans
December 30, 2013 … GWTR (www.gwtr.com) … discussing recent acquisitions and plans for the coming year. Developing opportunities to deploy "smart water solutions" that improve efficiency in drinking water systems has been a key focus for the company, according to Erik Hromadka, CEO of Global Water Technologies. "We identified this emerging area as a good fit for our small company to serve as a catalyst for innovation by using sensors and software to reduce water loss from hidden leaks and damaging water main breaks … We have also added tools to better engage customers and provide complementary services for utilities" …
Water storage capacity just for 30 days …
December 30, 2013 Pakistan’s water storage capacity is just for 30 days against the minimum requirement of 120 days while most of the developed countries have 1-2 years water storage capability … agriculturist Jamshed Cheema. “India has the ability to store water for 120-220 days. Egypt has 1,000 days water storage capacity only on River Nile, America 900 days on River Colorado, Australia 600 and South Africa has the ability to store water for 500 days on River Orange.” Pakistan Agriculture Scientists Association Chairman Jamshed Iqbal Cheema said that water shortage in Pakistan will increase to 31% of people’s needs by 2025 and he underlines the need for some tangible steps, including water usage charges and building of huge water reservoirs including Kalabagh Dam, to cope with the coming problems. Water is lifeline for Pakistan and even more important issue than Kashmir and Islamabad should relate this vital issue with granting of MFN status [Most Favoured Nation] to India, Cheema suggested … To tackle the situation, Cheema suggested that the government should apply reasonable water usage charges to discourage wastage of the resource … India has 1,600 cubic metres of water per person per year while major European countries have up to twice as much ranging from 2,300 cubic metres in Germany to 3,000 cubic metres in France … per capita water availability has alarmingly decreased, a situation where human survival becomes difficult and economic development also comes to a halt … Pakistan’s water situation is deteriorating day-by-day and if the status quo continues then Pakistan will be left to face unprecedented catastrophe in terms of touching the per capita water availability to its lowest ebb …
Israel’s Water Challenge
12/26/2013 … Israel’s successful efforts to increase water security will lessen one of the country’s geographical constraints. But new sources of water are more energy intensive, and this could increase Israel’s short-term dependence on energy imports unless domestic energy sources are successfully developed … Because concerted military efforts have been required in the past to secure water resources, Israel has had a strong incentive to develop technological solutions to improve water security. Additional domestic water resources — including increasing desalination capacity and continued efforts to recycle water — allow Israel to mitigate one of its inherent geographic constraints … Israel has plans to increase total desalination capacity through 2020 such that it approaches the estimated annual amount of internally generated natural water resources … Israel’s total annual internal renewable natural sources of fresh water … has roughly 265 cubic meters per year of water per person available. This is well below the U.N. definition of water poverty, which is anything below 1,000 cubic meters per person per year. For groundwater, Israel relies on two main aquifers … Both also lie under the Palestinian territory … Crucially, more than half of Israel’s total natural water originates outside its borders … Maintaining control of the Golan Heights not only gives Israel a military advantage in dealing with adversaries to the north, it also helps to guarantee access to the Sea of Galilee. Israel historically has demonstrated a willingness to use military force to guarantee access to water resources … Water rights and distribution parameters were included in the 1994 peace treaty between Israel and Jordan. The Oslo II agreement in 1995 between Israel and the Palestinian National Authority also outlined parameters for water cooperation in the West Bank, but in practice, joint management has often failed and the Palestinian population remains heavily dependent on Israel for access to water. These treaties also did not remove Israel’s imperative to ensure continued access to water resources, nor its willingness to threaten military action to ensure it … Subsequent decades saw further development of the efficient use of water and the development of alternative sources. As a result, Israel has expanded internal water resources without expanding its physical borders, helping mitigate the risk of international confrontations over water. Israel is also a pioneer and global leader in water-efficient irrigation technology … Several droughts over the course of the last 15 years drove home the vulnerability of Israel’s water supply. Meanwhile, the overuse of groundwater resources, especially of the Coastal Aquifer, is degrading the quality of the water … These factors combined have pushed Israel toward desalination … But desalinated water remains far more energy-intensive than naturally sourced water, and it increases demands for power on the national electricity grid and from independent natural gas generators … could in turn increase Israel’s dependence on energy-exporting nations … Israel traditionally requires a third-party sponsor to survive. And even with the added desalination capacity, Israel may still need to use water from external sources. But it has successfully adjusted to the environment and better insulated itself from its neighbors, complementing an established military superiority. And this could provide additional maneuverability in future negotiations. Israel is momentarily in a secure strategic position. Syria will likely remain in a state of civil war for an extended period, and Lebanon remains fragile and fragmented. Israel maintains a working relationship with other neighbors, such as the Hashemite regime in Jordan, as well as Fatah and the Palestinian National Authority and the Egyptian military. This status quo seems unlikely to change in the short term. But although Israel is in a relatively stable position, it knows how mercurial the surrounding region is and will likely still behave proactively around national security issues. Israel’s proactive solution to ensuring water security is to develop additional domestic resources. Though this will require more imported energy in the short term, the continued development of domestic energy resources could act as a counter-balance, even as water resources become more energy-intensive.
BEZUGSDOKUMENT: Dec. 25, 2013 Stratfor: Israel’s Water Challenge – Analysis …
Drinking water woes in 25% urban homes
Dec 26, 2013 … survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) … The just-released survey – Key Indicators of Drinking Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Housing Condition in India – states that 77.8% houses in AP have supplies within their premises and in three per cent of the households, members have to walk at least half a kilometer to fetch drinking water. The survey also said that sufficient water for activities excluding consumption was available to 86% of urban households throughout the year. However, activists are skeptical of these figures …
Wasser als Konflikt- und Friedensstifter
23.12.13 Wasser ist begrenzt – und hält sich nicht an Grenzen. Zwar gibt es schon ein Abkommen der Vereinten Nationen, das den Umgang mit der wertvollen Ressource regelt. Doch noch fehlt die Umsetzung. Wenn demnächst in Tadschikistan die Lichter verlässlich brennen, fürchtet das Nachbarland Usbekistan um sein Wasser. Tadschikistan plant seit Jahren ein neues Wasserkraftwerk, um die nächtlichen Stromausfälle zu beenden. Außerdem soll der erzeugte Strom das Land wirtschaftlich voran bringen … Mit dem geplanten Mega-Staudamm könnte Tadschikistan den 30 Millionen Usbeken das Wasser abdrehen – ein großes Drohpotential und effizientes Druckmittel. Zudem steht der geplante Rogun-Damm im erdbebenbedrohten Tamirgebirge. Sollte dieser infolge eines Bebens brechen, könnte er eine riesige Flutkatastrophe in Usbekistan auslösen. Der schwelende Konflikt zwischen den beiden ehemaligen Sowjetrepubliken ist kein Einzelfall. Es gibt weltweit kaum eine Region, in der Wasser nicht auch eine sicherheitspolitische Rolle spielt. Gudrun Kopp, Staatssekretärin im Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, BMZ, schätzt das Konfliktpotential hoch ein: "Konflikte können sich sehr schnell entwickeln und auch bis hin zu Kriegen führen", warnt sie … Die Vereinten Nationen schätzen, dass es aktuell für mehr als die Hälfte der länderübergreifenden Wasserressourcen keine Verträge gibt. Das "Übereinkommen über das Recht der nicht-schifffahrtlichen Nutzung internationaler Wasserläufe" soll das ändern. Die UN-Konvention regelt eine faire Verteilung des Wassers zwischen den Anrainerstaaten. Sie verpflichtet die Unterzeichnerstaaten, auch die Interessen anderer Anrainerstaaten zu berücksichtigen, vor allem wenn es um Wasserentnahmen und um Verschmutzung der gemeinsamen Gewässer geht. 1997 hat die UN-Generalversammlung das Regelwerk angenommen, es ist bis heute aber nicht ratifiziert. Es fehlten nur noch vier Unterschriften, dann könnte die Konvention nach mehr als 15 Jahren rechtsgültig werden, betont Gudrun Kopp vom BMZ. "Ich gehe davon aus, dass Ende dieses Jahres beziehungsweise Anfang des kommenden Jahres die UN-Konvention wirklich in Kraft treten kann" … "Nile River Basin Initiative" … Die Bundesrepublik unterstützt seit mehr als zehn Jahren sowohl auf politischer Ebene als auch mit finanziellen Mitteln die Initiative … Wenn eine internationale Initiative erfolgreich ist, kann sich das Konfliktpotential in Friedenspotential umwandeln, betont Olcay Ünver. Er leitet die Abteilung für Land- und Wasserfragen bei der FAO, der Ernährungs- und Landwirtschaftsorganisation der Vereinten Nationen. Es gebe, so Ünver, zwei Faktoren, die eine friedliche, gemeinsame Wassernutzung über Nationalgrenzen hinweg fördern können. "Der erste Faktor ist eine gemeinsame Bedrohung", sagt er. Wenn zum Beispiel bei wachsender Bevölkerung das Wasser für alle immer knapper wird oder wenn die Anrainer von Dürren oder Überschwemmungen betroffen sind. "Solche Bedrohungen machen das Nicht-Kooperieren einfach zu teuer" … Ein anderer Friedensfaktor sei die Win-Win-Situation, die durch eine Zusammenarbeit entstehen könne. "Das können gemeinsame Projekte sein wie Wasserkraftwerke, Bewässerungsanlagen oder Umweltprojekte, um die Gewässer zu schützen" … UN Water schätzt, dass in gut zehn Jahren fast zwei Milliarden Menschen in Gebieten leben werden, die von akutem Wassermangel bedroht sind. Auch das fordert ein effizientes Wassermanagement über Grenzen hinweg. Ohne das UN-Abkommen, das als Grundgerüst für bi- und multilaterale Abkommen dienen kann, wird es jedoch schwierig.
Fotoserie: Sauberes Wasser für alle
In Uganda gibt es genug Wasser. Der Victoria-See gilt als der zweitgrößte Frischwassersee weltweit. Doch für viele Menschen in den Armenvierteln ist sauberes Wasser unerreichbar – da ist Eigeninitiative gefragt …
Wasser als Menschenrecht
23.12.13 1,66 Millionen unterschreiben für "Right2Water" … Die Wasserversorgung soll auch über den Umweg der "Konzessionsrichtlinie" nicht privatisiert werden können. Die EU-Kommission hat die erste erfolgreiche Bürgerinitiative offiziell bekanntgegeben. Die notwendige Zahl von einer Million Unterschriften aus mindestens sieben EU-Staaten wurde dabei weit übertroffen. Insgesamt gab es 1,66 Millionen Unterstützungserklärung aus 16 Ländern für die Initiative "Right2Water" … EU-Kommissar Michel Barnier hat angekündigt, die Trinkwasserversorgung von der Anwendung der EU-Konzessionsrichtlinie auszunehmen. Zu einem Gesetzesvorschlag ist die Kommission aber nicht verpflichtet …
20. Dezember 2013 Seit 2009 wagt die Schweiz eine neue Form der Zusammenarbeit und verknüpft die Friedensförderung mit der nachhaltigen Bewirtschaftung von Wasser. Wasser kann zu Streitigkeiten und Spannungen führen, aber es kann auch als Instrument zur Förderung von Frieden und Zusammenarbeit genutzt werden. Dies ist die Kernbotschaft des Schweizer Engagements im Bereich Wasser-Diplomatie. Die neuartige Initiative «Blue Peace Middle East» nimmt die Entscheidungsträger mehrerer Staaten in die Pflicht: Türkei, Libanon, Irak, Jordanien und Syrien. Der Druck auf die Wasserressourcen im Nahen Osten ist so hoch wie nie zuvor und stellt eine wirtschaftliche und soziale Zeitbombe für die Bevölkerung der gesamten Region dar. Das Bevölkerungswachstum, die Migration und die Urbanisierung, der Klimawandel und zum Teil auch der steigende Lebensstandard haben sehr grosse Auswirkungen auf die Wasserressourcen. Zahlreiche Flüsse in der Türkei, in Syrien, Irak, Libanon und Jordanien führen 50 bis 90 % weniger Wasser als noch vor fünfzig Jahren …
Water Wars Began in San Francisco 100 Years Ago
Dec 19, 2013 … Dec. 19, 1913, was when President Woodrow Wilson signed into law the Raker Act, which allowed San Francisco to begin drawing its water from as-yet unbuilt Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in Yosemite National Park. Since then, "the mother of all California water wars" has been running steadily downstream … touching farmers as well as conservationists — as well as anyone who washes, drinks or otherwise imbibes the pure Sierra snowmelt that flows from San Francisco faucets …
Climate Change Affecting Water Resources
December 9, 2013 Scientists say climate change will not affect all regions of the world equally – especially when it comes to fresh water. The latest computer models indicate some places will get a lot less, while others get a lot more. Dr. Jacob Schewe and his colleagues … published their findings in a special issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences … works at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research … “One example … is the Mediterranean region. Most of the models really project a strong drying. So much less water being available. That’s mainly southern Europe, northern Africa. So these places will be affected most probably by a reduction in water availability. Another strong signal in the opposite direction is in the high northern latitudes, so, Siberia, northern Canada. These places will probably get more water.” He said countries such as Israel, Turkey, Spain and Morocco could see as much as a 50-percent reduction from what they have now. Findings given a medium to high confidence rating indicate that the southern United States will become drier. But there are many areas where the models disagree. And it can be difficult to develop a model that fits a particular region. One such region is West Africa’s Niger Delta. Nevertheless, Schewe said he hopes policymakers take notice of the findings so far. “One thing that we hope will happen is that not only national policymakers will consider them, but actually also the people who are busy with the policy negotiations about climate change mitigation. The best way to cope with it is simply not to let it happen, right? And you can still avoid a lot of these changes by simply mitigating climate change” … He said, “if you have a country that depends a lot on agriculture, where you’ve got a lot of agriculture, and you see that the water resources will go down in the future, then maybe now you still have some time to find the resources, find the funding, develop the technologies or buy the technologies and to use the water more efficiently. And also, to put regulations in place to avoid overuse of the resources — and to distribute it evenly across the different users” …
December 18, 2013 Global water scarcity predicted to rise by 40%
… Western and southern Australia were projected to see a decline in water availability while the north may see a significant increase … http://www.smh.com.au/environment/water-issues/global-water-scarcity-predicted-to-rise-by-40-20131218-2zke9.html
16.12.2013 KlimawandelStudie: Wasser wird knapper als gedacht
… Wegen des Klimawandels werden wahrscheinlich noch in diesem Jahrhundert rund 40 Prozent mehr Menschen unter absoluter Wasserknappheit leiden, als dies ohne Klimaänderungen der Fall wäre. … Die vom Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK) initiierte Studie vergleicht Klimamodelle und die Verfügbarkeit von Trinkwasser weltweit. Sie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass aufgrund des Klimawandels die Wasserknappheit im Verlauf dieses Jahrhunderts stark zunehmen und die Lebensgrundlage von Millionen Menschen gefährden könnte … Die regionalen Unterschiede sind dabei den Berechnungen zufolge immens … Vor mehr als zehn Jahren warnte der frühere Chef des UN-Umweltprogramms, Klaus Töpfer, vor einer "Periode von Kriegen um Wasser". Mit der neuen Studie sind seine Befürchtungen ein Stück realistischer geworden.
BEZUGSDOKUMENTE beim PIK:
EU, Uzbekistan discuss regional issues of water resources management
27 January 2014 EU Special Representative for Central Asia, Patricia Flor discussed with the Uzbek government prospects of EU assistance to the country in 2014 and in the future, including support for rural development and the start of the bilateral dialogue on water policy within the EU Water Initiative [ http://www.euwi.net/ ], the EU delegation in Uzbekistan said in its report, released on the official visit of Flor to Tashkent … During the visit, Flor also held meetings with representatives of civil society in Uzbekistan. "At the meeting, the sides exchanged views on various aspects of cooperation between the EU and Uzbekistan, including the areas of security, energy, water management, economic cooperation and governance" … According to the report, the purpose of the dialogue of the EU-Central Asia for the Environment on the principles of the EU Water Initiative is to develop proposals for the creation of systems of integrated water resources management at the regional level …
[J.B.: Ein ganz dickes Dankeschön in den Bendler-Block für diesen kameradschaftlichen Hinweis!]
EU Special Representative for Central Asia
Speech: Conference on Water Cooperation, 20-21 August 2013, Dushanbe
… the European Council Conclusions on EU water diplomacy stressed the necessity to manage well the effects of climate change, demographic and economic development as well as different uses of water resources to prevent tensions and conflicts over access to water. It is legitimate for states to use their water resources for energy generation, but it is equally legitimate for downstream countries to demand a fair share for drinking water, sanitation and irrigation purposes. To solve these questions constructively, enhanced water cooperation across borders is indispensable … Joint management of Europe’s international rivers has a long and complex history – major examples are the Danube and Rhine Conventions as well as the already mentioned EU Water Framework Directive. We believe that equitable, efficient and collaborative management of transboundary water resources is an essential element for sustainable development, security and stability … EU stands ready to share our experience and expertise … We also support other relevant instruments which promote sustainable management of transboundary river basins, such as international river basin and lakes commissions, and in particular the 1997 New York Convention which should come into force in the following months … we are convinced that water should be thoroughly addressed in the follow up to Rio+20, in the process of the elaboration of Sustainable Development Goals and of the post-2015 UN development framework …
POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA
14 January 2014 new President of Economic and Social Council for 2014, Ambassador Martin Sajdik of Austria, says: … With the United Nations development agenda in transition – moving from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) era towards a focus not just on poverty eradication but also on the health of the planet – the newly-elected President of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) pledged to continue to strengthen that body’s role as a platform for unified dialogue on sustainable and inclusive development. “We have a very interesting period ahead of us,” said incoming Council President Martin Sajdik, who is also the Permanent Representative of Austria to the United Nations … “We intend to put the spotlight on the final year left to achieve the MDGs” … ECOSOC will play a key part as the international community transitions from the MDGs to Sustainable Development Goals and a UN development agenda post-2015 …
Accelerating development agenda top priority for UN ….
Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel
Connecting Africa and Saving Egypt
… revived Congo-Nile canal …
Okober 2013 … nicht mehr ganz neu, aber ich habe das Heft erst jetzt lesen können …
pdf im Anhang [Urheberrecht beachten]
BEZUGSDOKUMENT: Studie (Sept. 2013) von Gamal al-Kalyouby, Amercan University of Cairo in Internet nicht gefunden.
Congo-Nile Canal Will Save Egypt, Avert War, Make Juba Hub of Africa
November 27, 2013 The leading South Sudanese think-tank, The Fashoda Institute of Strategic and Regional Studies, has published a strategic analysis of why and how the Egyptian Government is reviving a three-decade-old old idea — one going back to the Anwar as-Sadat Administration — to resolve the country’s acute water crisis …
BEZUGSDOKUMENT FASHODA Institute
November 28, 2013 Revived Congo Nile Canal Project Could Transform Egyptian Water Needs, End Potential Conflict Over Ethiopian Dam
siehe auch: Egypt’s ‚Lost Dream‘ of Linking Congo, Nile Rivers
… The idea was first seriously explored in 1980 during the administration of the late Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat. Sadat sent an expedition to the Congo to prepare a conceptualization of the project. However, the idea had first emerged in 1902, and was mentioned in a book written by Apata Basha, Egypt’s former chief irrigation engineer in Sudan. However, this idea died with the death of Apata, as did the conceptualization of the project with the 1981 demise of Sadat and the arrival of President Hosni Mubarak to power in Egypt …
Central Asia: Democracy, Instability and Strategic Game in Kyrgyzstan
… book is an attempt to provide an overview of political and strategic processes at work in the region by taking the case of Kyrgyzstan … states … continue to undergo complex nation-building process, which is far from complete, but they firmly remain insulated by Russia and but more increasingly so by China …
Kap. 7 für den Wasser- und Hydoenergie-Interessierten
Politics of Hydropower
-CASA 1000 (Central Asia-South Asia): Exploring Export Potentials
-Who will Control CASA 1000?
Mapping California’s Oil-Water Risks
January 15, 2014 … California is home to the Monterey oil basin, one of the—if not the—largest reserves of tight oil trapped in rocks in the United States. Accessing California’s oil with limited negative repercussions for the environment, and especially for the state’s water resources, will be challenging as production processes pose risks to both the quantity and the quality of California’s water supplies … Even small withdrawals of additional water, such as those necessary for some oil production processes, could overtax California’s limited resources. Moreover, the difficult task of accessing the Monterey basin’s oil carries a high risk of water quality degradation … The risks of contamination make it critical to keep oil and water from mixing, but this is not an easy task … Regulatory oversight of these issues is inconsistent and insufficient. California’s water and oil policymaking bureaucracies are fragmented due to tensions between different government agencies with divergent objectives. Regulatory bodies must find a way to implement existing policies and more effectively manage new oil-water concerns … it is uncertain how constant geological shifts might open underground channels between oil, wastewater, and freshwater, recent studies suggest that the injection of wastewater underground could actually induce seismic activity by weakening preexisting faults … California’s struggles with water quantity and quality are etched into the state’s history and will play a major role in its future. Today, the state faces an unprecedented water crisis brought on by ongoing drought conditions, related climate factors, and man-made water shortages. As a result, Californians are growing less tolerant of risks to their limited water resources, and this attitude could affect oil production from the Monterey shale … A complex web of actors—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its nine regional water quality control boards, the State Department of Public Health, and the State Department of Conservation—coordinate various aspects of water quality protection. These bodies draw on a number of regulations, including the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the California Water Code, the Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act, and various water quality control plans. The complicated bureaucracy fans out from there, with over 1,000 reported specialized and general-purpose local governments, water companies, and other organizations that manage water at the local level …
UNOCHA / UNICEF
Syria: Access to water and sanitation by governorate (Feb.2013)
… was sonst noch so los war:
All we need is WATER !!!
… und dann noch zum Schluß:
140201 Pismestrovic_AUT Forces Measured