W A T E R I N T A K E 27/2013 – Joerg Barandat

W A T E R I N T A K E

27/2013

… das war’s für dieses Jahr …

und den nächsten erst im nächsten …

16.12.2013

beste Weihnachtsgrüße + Neujahrswünsche von der Elbe

… Ihre Majestät der König lassen allen Herren Offiziere zum neuen Jahr gratulieren, und die nicht sind, wie sie sein sollten möchten sich bessern!

Neujahrswunsch Friedrich II von Preußen, 1781 … Ihre Majestät der König lassen allen guten Herren Offizieren vielmals zum neuen Jahr gratulieren, die übrigen möchten sich so betragen, daß Ihre Majestät ihnen künftig auch gratulieren können! … ders. 1782

… Cheap energy sources, however, can eventually come at a high price, albeit with a politically tricky time lag. Simply put, the current cost of pollution is too low, while the level of urgency is high … it is vitally important that the international community reaches a sufficiently high common denominator in limiting greenhouse-gas emissions. If not, we will not be able to limit the global temperature increase to a sustainable level …

Javier Solana, Nov 20, 2013 The Shale Revolution’s Global Footprint …

http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/javier-solana-examines-the-impact-of-shale-energy-on-europe-and-asia

WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

San Diego water war moves to court

Dec. 14, 2013 … A judge will hear arguments … to determine whether the Metropolitan Water District overcharges the San Diego County Water Authority by millions of dollars every year and in doing so subsidizes cheaper rates for users across the rest of Southern California. The water authority contends that Metropolitan’s alleged overbilling amounts to $57 million this year alone and cumulatively $150 million since 2011. That practice treats San Diego ratepayers as a “cash cow” for Metropolitan, the authority claims … This lawsuit is the latest turn in a long feud between the authority and Metropolitan, which provides water to six Southern California cities and 19 million residents. In one of the more eye-opening allegations, San Diego officials claim Metropolitan formed a “secret society” among some member agencies that plotted to discredit San Diego’s various bids for water from independent sources. Metropolitan has denied the charge. Some of the member water agencies have spent tens of thousands of dollars of ratepayer funds on studies and public relations to counter San Diego’s claims … Metropolitan says it cost more the farther the water has to travel because of energy expenses and the impact on pipelines and canals. Every cent can be attributed to the actual cost of moving water to the San Diego region, Metropolitan added …

http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2013/dec/14/sd-water-war-moves-to-court/

New water strategy planned

14 December 2013 … SAUDI ARABIA … Governor of the General Organization for Water Desalination (GOWD) Abdul Rahman Al-Ibrahim has stressed the importance of rationalizing water consumption in the Kingdom, pointing out that 10 percent of water saved translates into 10 percent savings in finance and building resources. Speaking about the loss incurred by the Saudi economy because of water wastage, Al-Ibrahim said: “The role of the GOWD is to deliver desalinated water to areas in the Kingdom where no water resources are available, such as majority of the coastal areas … We are in the process of finalizing a strategic plan following a survey conducted by the Ministry of Water which covered areas that are badly in need of water supplies” … Water consumption in Saudi Arabia this year exceeded 8 million cubic meters for the first time ever. This translates into 800,000 water trucks with a load capacity of 10 tons each. Water consumption per capita in the Kingdom is 265 liters, which is twice the per capita consumption in the European Union. Desalinated sea water accounts for 60 percent of the Kingdom’s consumption, with the remainder coming from underground wells … the main challenge faced by the Kingdom was to increase water production by 50 percent, which would lead to fuel consumption going up proportionately to produce such quantities. The other challenge … was to increase production of electricity by 100 percent. The organization is also working on an alternative sources of energy … besides using renewable energy … will also take up work to establish the largest station for desalinating water using solar energy at Al-Khafji city, with a capacity of 30,000 cubic meter of desalinated water. The manufacture of solar cells for the plant was almost complete …

http://www.arabnews.com/news/492466

Lake Zurich finds switching to Lake Michigan water could cost $43 million

December 13, 2013 … officials learned recently that it could cost close to $43 million to bring Lake Michigan water to the town. But even if officials choose to stay with the current groundwater system, village data shows the town still would have to spend about $16.5 million to upgrade existing infrastructure to maintain the practice of drawing the water from an underground source. Representatives from the village’s engineering firm said the positives of hooking up to a Lake Michigan water system might end up outweighing the cost over the long run. "The biggest pro is that it’s a long-term sustainable solution," said Greg Gruen of Manhard Consulting. "It provides water source certainty" … a big part of the process would be getting information out to residents to inform them about the possible system upgrades, adding that the issue would be on a future village board agenda …

http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/suburbs/ct-lake-zurich-michigan-water-1219-tl-20131213,0,1943951.story

Water, water everywhere: But is there enough to drink?

December 11, 2013 … The challenge of supplying clean, safe drinking water to an expanding world population comes down to money … Policymakers, farmers, business leaders, and ordinary people around the world face difficult choices and tradeoffs in meeting their basic needs for water … Water-supply systems tend to have high upfront costs, and there has been regional controversy about the ownership of such systems: in some places, publicly owned and provided at a subsidized cost; in others, privatized and sold at a profit … according to Lawrence Susskind, the Ford Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology], “It’s not useful to think of public versus private; everything has got to be thought of as partnerships” … Kenneth Strzepek, a research scientist at MIT’s Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change … “Very little is consumed … Mostly it’s just dirtied up and put back” — either as with agricultural runoff or treated sewage, or by being heated up in an industrial cooling system and then dumped back in a river or lake at a higher temperature. Virtually all of the world’s major rivers now have their flows allocated, by agreement, among different municipalities and users: Some, such as the Colorado River, never make it to the ocean at all, and others, like China’s Yellow River, run dry for several months each year … These issues are only going to get worse with climate changes … But there are ways of addressing some existing or expected shortages of water: Timothy Griffin, director of the Agriculture, Food and Environment Program at Tufts University, pointed out that a staggering 25 percent of water used in the United States goes to produce food that ends up being wasted, so more efficient distribution and use of food could have a significant impact …

http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/water-water-everywhere-but-is-there-enough-to-drink-1213.html

There’s Water Under the Ocean Floor: Should We Pump It Out?

December 11, 2013 … We think of nothing being deeper than the bottom of the ocean. Scientists have discovered, however, that much lies beneath it. Most recently, they’ve found that there are major reserves of fresh water beneath the ocean, many kilometers out to sea. It’s so much low-salinity water – half a million cubic kilometers — that there’s already talk about using the water to prevent a “global water crisis” among many coastal cities in Australia, China, North America and South Africa. As much as the water is needed, could demand for it set off a rush of offshore drilling with potentially drastic repercussions for the fragile marine ecosystems at the ocean’s bottom? … According to a new study in the December 5 Nature by Australian scientists, the huge freshwater reserves are located underneath the seabed on continental shelves around the world. ”The volume of this water resource is a hundred times greater than the amount we’ve extracted from the Earth’s sub-surface in the past century since 1900” … Offshore drilling is not only costly; extracting the water carries the risk of contaminating the reserves and damaging the quality of the water. The water reserves are not renewable so whatever is done must be undertaken with exceeding care … As U.N. Water points out, many of us are using water and other natural resources at an unsustainable rate. If everyone in the world consumed water at the same rates as the average person in North America or Europe, about 3.5 Earths would be needed …

http://www.care2.com/causes/theres-water-under-the-ocean-floor-should-we-pump-it-out.html

Vertragsunterzeichnung – Wasser-Pipeline zwischen Rotem und Totem Meer geplant

10. Dezember 2013 … Am Montag stand die Vertragsunterzeichnung bei der Weltbank in Washington an, die auch die Machbarkeitsstudie finanziert hatte. Von dem Projekt sollen Israelis, Jordanier und Palästinenser gleichermaßen profitieren. "Ein historischer Traum wird wahr", jubelte der israelische Minister für regionale Kooperation, dies sei "ein historischer Schritt". Die "Megalösung aller Probleme", von der Silvan Schalom entgegen Warnungen von Umweltschützern schwärmt, ist es allerdings nicht. Die Fluten aus dem Roten Meer sollen über eine 180 Kilometer lange Pipeline ins Tote Meer geführt werden. Vorgesehen ist, dass diese Rohrleitung ausschließlich auf jordanischer Grenzseite verläuft. Offenbar gab es dort weniger Einsprüche von Ökologen. 200 Millionen Kubikmeter sollen am Golf von Akaba jährlich abgepumpt werden. Auf dem Weg in den Norden sind zwei Entsalzungsanlagen und ein Wasserkraftwerk geplant. Die Oberfläche des Toten Meeres liegt etwa 427 Meter unter dem normalen Meeresspiegel; das Gefälle kann mithin zur Energiegewinnung genutzt werden. Die alte Idee, mit einem Mehrfachen an Wassermassen aus dem Roten Meer – gedacht war an zwei Milliarden Kubikmeter pro Jahr – das Tote Meer zu retten und jede Menge Süßwasser zu produzieren, ist gehörig geschrumpft. Nicht nur die Experten der Weltbank hatten finanzielle und ökologische Bedenken. Was passieren wird, wenn die beim Entsalzen als Abfallprodukt anfallende Salzlake sich mit dem Wasser des Toten Meeres mischt, kann noch keiner genau abschätzen. Wie die Natur reagiere, werde man erst in 30 Jahren wissen, warnt etwa Clive Lipchin vom Umweltinstitut Arava im Negev. Die abgespeckte Version kommt auch um Einiges billiger als die ursprünglich geplante: Statt zehn Milliarden US-Dollar sind die Kosten jetzt zwischen 250 und 400 Millionen angesetzt. Weil das grenzübergreifende Projekt im Sinne eines Nahostfriedens ist, beteiligen sich Weltbank und internationale Geberländer an der Finanzierung. Mit Fertigstellung wird in fünf Jahren gerechnet. Das Trinkwasser, das an der ersten Entsalzungsstation erzeugt werden soll, ist aber schon vergeben: 30 bis 50 Millionen Kubikmeter sollen in den Süden Israels fließen, 30 weitere Kubikmeter nach Jordanien. Die Jordanier können auch die zweite, nördliche Anlage für sich nutzen. Die Palästinenser bekommen zum Ausgleich 30 Millionen Kubikmeter Süßwasser aus dem See Genezareth …

http://www.badische-zeitung.de/nachrichten/panorama/wasser-pipeline-zwischen-rotem-und-totem-meer-geplant–78238305.html

siehe auch:

09.12.2013 Frisches Wasser für das Tote Meer … Umweltschützer kritisieren das Projekt, weil sie unabsehbare Risiken sowohl für die Umwelt des Toten Meeres als auch die des Roten Meeres befürchten …

http://www.dw.de/frisches-wasser-f%C3%BCr-das-tote-meer/a-17281823

Water misgivings no cause of friction between neighbours

04 December 2013 Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan Dr T.C. Raghawan … dispelled impression that water misgivings can or may emerge as a cause of friction between the two countries. Responding to queries raised by members of Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KCCI), he also denied that the Indus Water Treaty may be loosing its relevance for Pakistan or India. "The two countries have a very significant and viable water treaty that is largely followed and respected by them" … He said the two countries had yet to go a long way although substantial developments had been registered as opening of Wagah Attari Road, an important trade route followed by opening of Khokhrapar – Monabao train service that can always serve as another important trade route between the two countries … While mentioning Gujral Doctrine as an important milestone, Dr. Raghawan said India and Pakistan were in midst of a paradigm shift focussed on technology, with specific reference to communications; trade and travel. He referred to presence of a very powerful diaspora, pertaining to India and Pakistan in different parts of the world, playing important role in restoring public confidence and interdependence of the neighbours on each other …

http://www.brecorder.com/top-news/1-front-top-news/147271-water-misgivings-no-cause-of-friction-between-neighbours-indian-hc.html

Pak cites water crisis, asks India to withdraw Siachen troops

December 04, 2013 Pakistan … asked India to withdraw its troops from Siachen, claiming their presence on the glacier in Kashmir was damaging the environment and polluting one of its main sources of water supplies. Sartaj Aziz, Pakistan’s advisor to the prime minister on national security and foreign affairs, claimed Indian forces on Siachen posed a "serious threat" to the country’s environment … Pakistan is facing a water shortage and Indian troops are damaging the "virgin snow" of Siachen- one of the largest sources of water in Pakistan, Aziz said. He added that items of daily use disposed of by Indian soldiers were threatening the glacier’s existence. Describing the presence of Indian forces on the glacier as a "big issue", he urged India to resolve the Siachen matter "on priority basis by pulling out its troops" … Aziz said Pakistan and India are engaged to resolve outstanding water issues through multiple channels, including the composite dialogue and Indus Waters Commission. He said the implications of water scarcity were grave in view of climate change …

http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/pakistan-asks-india-to-withdraw-siachen-troops/article1-1158965.aspx

Water Scarcity: Senate to form committee to suggest measures

2013-12-03 … ISLAMABAD …The Senate … announced formation of a special committee of the house to suggest steps required to be taken by the government to address challenges the country could face in near future because of water scarcity … Moving the motion on “the importance of water in our national economy” and steps required to be taken by the government “to address the growing water scarcity in the country” … the country would soon become a “water scarce” if immediate measures were not taken …

http://www.dawn.com/news/1060198/water-scarcity-senate-to-form-committee-to-suggest-measures

Water projects worth JOD3.3 million to be implemented in northern, eastern regions

Dec 03 2013 AMMAN — New water conveyors and wastewater networks will be constructed in the Kingdom’s northern and eastern regions to address the rising demand for water and the increasing flow of sewage … Water Minister Hazem Nasser … "The projects will be carried out in Syrian refugees‘ host communities to address the surging demand for water and a similar increase in the amount of generated wastewater in the northern and eastern regions, where the majority of refugees reside" … The projects are funded by the Gulf Cooperation Council grant. They aim at improving water supply by extending new pipes and reducing leakage, as well as addressing pressure on the sewage network … The northern region suffers from an acute water shortage caused by limited resources, violations to main pipelines and deteriorating networks, while the situation has worsened with the influx of Syrian refugees …

http://www.zawya.com/story/Water_projects_worth_JOD33_million_to_be_implemented_in_northern_eastern_regions-ZAWYA20131203064919/

USD 3bn project to boost water security

Dec 01 2013 In an effort to ensure water security in the country, the Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation ( Kahramaa ) is undertaking a $3bn project designed to provide seven days of strategic water storage within its network. "The Water Security Mega Reservoirs project is one of the largest of its kind in the world and will increase the capacity of water storage (in Qatar) by 10 times," said Kahramaa technical director Ahmed al-Naser … While Qatar’s power situation is comfortable, the country has some of the smallest water reserves in the world … to meet the growing demand for water and electricity, Kahramaa has planned an independent water and power plant (IWPP) with a power generation capacity of 2,400MW and a desalination capacity of 130mn g/d …

http://www.zawya.com/story/USD3bn_project_to_boost_water_security-ZAWYA20131201083316/

Tribe hopes to build bottled water plant in Maine

December 1, 2013 Tucked in the nation’s northeastern corner, the Passamaquoddy tribe’s ancestral land remains as it was centuries ago: Rugged and teeming with natural beauty and wildlife. Snow-covered in winter, springtime warmth reveals a rolling landscape, lakes and ponds — and dozens of bubbling springs. But there is an ugly reality inside this idyllic community: Joblessness is rampant, making it hard for residents to feed their families. The tribe also needs more money to bolster public safety and other tribal services. The leadership has been working on a bold plan to address these issues: Capitalize on the land’s pristine spring water by building a 123,000-square-foot bottling plant and selling the water to customers outside of the tribal land. The tribe is working with an investor and hopes to complete a deal early next year. Planning has been underway for several years, and there appears to be broad support among the 1,300 tribal members in Indian Township … The goal for the tribe is to create 70 good-paying industrial jobs at the plant and to bring in revenue to fund tribal schools, public safety, health care and an assisted-living center at Indian Township, Socobasin said. Even more jobs would come from spinoff businesses like a trucking company for hauling water … Bill Turner, a hydrologist, water source expert and tribal consultant, said rainwater and melting snow could provide more than 700 million gallons of water from multiple wells — without tapping the aquifer deep below the ground’s surface. And the remote location means the water source is unspoiled … The Passamaquoddies have no plans to go head-to-head with Maine’s Poland Spring, the nation’s third-largest bottled water brand. The tribe would have its own label, Passamaquoddy Blue, but it sees bigger markets through sales of store-labeled water and sales to the U.S. government …

http://www.seattlepi.com/news/us/article/Tribe-hopes-to-build-bottled-water-plant-in-Maine-5025865.php

Global Packaged Water Report 2013

€ 13 280 – November 2013 – by Canadean Ltd – 788 pages … provides a detailed analysis of the packaged water market, with global, regional and individual country data including forecasts to 2016 … The Global Packaged Water Report 2013 is an essential guide for anyone with an interest in the packaged water soft drinks market and forms part of Canadean’sbest selling series of global soft drinks reports …

http://www.reportlinker.com/p01055479/Global-Packaged-Water-Report.html

Enormous water saving possible by simple measures in domestic & industrial sectors

Nov 30 2013 … In a report to the government, Central Water Power Research Station (CWPRS) has said that at present water conservation assumes great importance owing to limited availability of fresh water to meet the requirements of future population. "Enormous water saving can be possible by adopting simple measures in irrigation, domestic and industrial sectors, which together utilise about 94 per cent of the developed water resources. The National Water Mission launched on April 6, 2011 as part of the national action plan on climate change also emphasises the need for water conservation and minimisation of wastage. As a step forward, the cabinet decided to observe 2013 as the water conservation year with an aim to create awareness,“ said an official at CWPRS. He said the water conservation strategy requires a multi-pronged approach including optimum use of available water, recycling and reuse of waste water, and augmentation of using non-conventional methods like rainwater harvesting, artificial recharge of ground water and desalination of sea water …

http://www.indianexpress.com/news/-enormous-water-saving-possible-by-simple-measures-in-domestic—industrial-sectors-/1201511/

Water authority master plan open for review

Nov. 29, 2013 The region’s long-term water plans are open for public review, with the release of the San Diego County Water Authority’s climate and facilities plans. The plans will cover the authority’s plans to adjust to reductions in water usage, as well as dwindling supplies of imported water. And they project how the region’s water supplies and demand will be affected by a hotter, drier climate. They provide a blueprint for capital projects through 2035, including near- and mid-term capital projects such as building a pump station in North County that will deliver stored water to the northern reaches of the Water Authority’s service area … Along with the 2013 master plan update, the Water Authority released its first Climate Action Plan, which spells out greenhouse gas reductions … The agency also released an environmental impact report that documents the potential impacts of the facilities and climate plans …

http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2013/nov/29/environment-water-authority-master-plan/

Regional Water Facilities Master Plan Documents:

http://www.sdcwa.org/regional-water-facilities-master-plan-documents-public-comment

Water shortage leaves Beirutis fuming

November 29, 2013 As the long Mediterranean summer drags on and the promise of rain evaporates as quickly as the few fat drops that have fallen here and there, residents of the capital and its surrounding areas find themselves resorting to ad hoc private water networks as the public pipes run dry. “We had originally dug at 30 meters, but we are now digging at 70 meters,” one private water supplier and well owner … asked that his name not be printed as such operations are technically illegal … A young mechanical engineer living in the Ashrafieh neighborhood of Geitawi … who requested anonymity out of fear of retaliation from his neighbors, said living on the sixth floor leaves him with little or no water, although everyone in the building pays the same amount in annual water fees, about LL240,000. “People are racing for water,” he said, adding that each apartment should have its own water tank, but many cannot afford one. “Water should be equally distributed to every apartment,” he insisted. “Nobody from the government checks if that’s happening”… Outside the city, most villages have greater resources and less demand and many houses have wells … But the state was not the only guilty party … Lebanese households were generally very wasteful in their water usage … Manfred Scheu, team leader for the assistance to the water sector reform program at GIZ, a German international development organization … “There is no water demand management in Lebanon and no incentive for people to save water” … admitted Lebanon had “a long way to go” as the water sector had been neglected for years. Part of the national strategy is to install more than a million water meters around the country to monitor individual use, where high usage will be met with a higher water bill, and people will be trained how to read the meters … the country lacked a functional wastewater treatment infrastructure, especially for coastal areas … Much of this waste water ends up mixing with the ground water, which is then tapped by private wells and resold to consumers …

http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2013/Nov-29/239304-water-shortage-leaves-beirutis-fuming.ashx#axzz2m9InYNve

China Water Pumps Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2018

Nov. 28, 2013 … Water pumps market is one of the fastest growing markets globally as its applications are widening gradually with the growing water scarcity. It is projected that by 2030, about half of the population will face water scarcity globally and the demand for water might outstrip the supply by about 40%, creating pressure on existing network to redesign efficient water management systems. Thus, efficient water management systems require water pumping at several points, making optimized utilization of water pumps. China is the second largest economy, which is supported by the rising industrialization and huge population. As agriculture followed by industrial sectors are leading consumers for water the requirement for water pumps is also increasing substantially in the related industries. According to "China Water Pumps Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2018", China’s water pumps market is projected to grow at a notable compounded annual growth rate over the next five years. The water distribution in China is extremely fragmented as northern region of the country, which is highly populated, has less water reserves. In China, only about 15% land is arable and out of this, about 60% is located in northern region itself, which is highly water stressed region and thus, driving the demand for water pumps in the country …

http://www.sacbee.com/2013/11/28/5953954/china-water-pumps-market-forecast.html

Lao dam project raises Mekong fear

Nov 27, ’13 The Khone Falls on the Mekong river in southern Laos, close to the Cambodian border, is "an ecologically unique area, so rare in nature that every effort should be made to preserve all of Khone Falls from any development", according to a Mekong River Commission consultant in a 1994 report … This important area is under imminent threat from the construction of a hydroelectric project, the 240 megawatt Don Sahong dam, only a few kilometers away. The government of Laos notified the Mekong River Commission (MRC) on September 30 of its plans to start construction of the dam in 2014 … The decision is facing opposition across the Mekong region. A coalition of 103 Thai mon-governmental organizations drawing much of its support from eight Thai provinces bordering the Mekong, have demanded that the Thai government take action to stop the dam … The Don Sahong dam is bound to re-ignite bitter divisions within the MRC over the unilateral damming of the Lower Mekong. Cambodia and Vietnam insist on independent scientific studies of trans-boundary impacts before any dam goes ahead and do not accept the fish mitigation claims coming from Megafirst. What makes relations even worse between Laos and their riparian neighbors is the shock caused by the Lao government’s bid to reject the accepted definition of the Don Sahong dam as a mainstream dam on the Mekong, which would otherwise require at least six months consultation prior to any decision to go ahead with a hydropower project. In its September 30 notification to the MRC, Laos gave an interpretation that the Sahong channel did not qualify as a mainstream dam because somehow it had changed from being a "main stream" into a "tributary" during the course of 2013 … This is shaping up to be a major test-case for the Mekong River Commission to live up its mandate to promote sustainable development and at the same time garner peaceful international cooperation in the management of water resources … Ten major international donors to the MRC, including Japan, the United States and the European Union, have also requested the Lao government to submit the dam to prior consultation …

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/SEA-01-271113.html

Water law now in hands of conference panel

November 24, 2013 U.S. Senate and House of Representatives conferees have started work on the final version of a water authorization bill that states governors, not Congress, should negotiate interstate water disputes. That’s especially key in the longstanding battle over Lake Lanier water between Georgia, Alabama and Florida, a dispute that’s flared up again recently with a lawsuit filed by Florida against Georgia in the U.S. Supreme Court. “Congress has consistently said that the states should settle the dispute,” said Joanna Cloud, executive director of the Gainesville-based Lake Lanier Association. “We are glad that Congress did not try to micromanage the issue to achieve a result that would have benefited only one of the parties to the dispute. A solution is needed that will benefit all three states and all of the affected water users” in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, which includes Lanier, she said. The bill, pending in Congress for most of the year, would authorize the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to “construct water projects for mitigating storm and hurricane damage, restoring ecosystems and improving flood management,” according to the Congressional Budget Office …

http://www.gainesvilletimes.com/section/6/article/92104/

Singh’s Sham Water Accord

October 31, 2013 A new agreement between China and India doesn’t require Beijing to institutionalize rules-based cooperation on shared resources. For the past decade, China has pursued a series of ambitious dam-building projects in Tibet, making water a source of significant discord in Sino-Indian relations. Yet last week Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh returned from a much-publicized visit to Beijing with an accord on water cooperation that offers only jingles and slogans. The memorandum of understanding signed during Mr. Singh’s visit merely records that both parties "recognized that transborder rivers and related natural resources and the environment are assets of immense value," and that they "agreed that cooperation on transborder rivers will further enhance mutual strategic trust and communication." India even "expressed appreciation to China for providing flood-season hydrological data" … Mr. Singh has presented this trivial accord as a diplomatic success. In truth, the deal hands China a propaganda lever without addressing India’s concerns. In an increasingly water-stressed Asia, China has established a hydro-supremacy unparalleled in the world by annexing the starting place of Asia’s major rivers—the Tibetan plateau—and working to reengineer cross-border flows through dams, barrages and other structures. More transboundary rivers flow from China than from any other hydro-hegemon. Having already built more large dams than the rest of the world combined, Beijing has in the past decade shifted focus from dam-saturated internal rivers to international rivers. This year alone it has approved the construction of 54 new dam projects mainly concentrated in southeastern Tibet, including on rivers flowing to South and Southeast Asia. India is particularly vulnerable because it directly receives more than 48% … of surface water that flows out of Chinese territory every year … India has more arable land than China, but the source of most major Indian rivers is Chinese-controlled Tibet … New Delhi has been pressing Beijing for transparency on its dam projects and a commitment not to redirect the natural flow of any river or to diminish cross-border flows. But even a joint expert-level mechanism between China and India—set up in 2007 for "interaction and cooperation" on hydrological data—has proven of little value. China has limited its cooperation to the sale of flood-season hydrological data. India provides such data free to Pakistan year-round. Averting water wars demands rules-based cooperation, water-sharing and dispute-settlement mechanisms. Yet China rejects the very concept of water-sharing and doesn’t have a single water-sharing treaty with any of its neighbors. India has such treaties with both of its downstream neighbors, Pakistan and Bangladesh, including mechanisms to help resolve disputes that flare intermittently. Prime Minister Singh pleaded for a bilateral water treaty in separate meetings this year with Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang, asking at least for a joint commission to ensure transparency in upstream dam-building on the Brahmaputra River … and other southerly-flowing rivers … Mr. Singh didn’t wish to return empty-handed from Beijing. So he accepted what China was willing to offer—a token accord bereft of substance … China’s geographic advantage and rising military and economic might limit India’s bargaining power. To influence Beijing, then, India must leverage China’s growing Indian-market access. Yet India’s trade deficit with China in the past decade has climbed at about four times the pace of aggregate bilateral commerce. Perpetuating such a lopsided economic relationship while China disturbs the territorial and river-flow status quo is a double whammy for India. China’s dam-building spree is a reminder that Tibet remains at the heart of the India-China divide … Mr. Chellaney is the author, most recently, of "Water, Peace, and War: Confronting the Global Water Crisis."

http://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=34161

siehe auch: Japan Policy Research Institute (JPRI)

JPRI Occasional Paper No. 45

June 5, 2013 Water, Peace, and War: Confronting the Global Water Crisis

By Brahma Chellaney … With water stress spreading across much of the world, the next flash point could well be water. The battles of yesterday were fought over land … Those of today are over energy. But the battles of tomorrow are likely to be over the most precious of all natural resources – water … What is common between Tibet; the Golan Heights; the traditional Kurdish homeland, which straddles the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin; Kashmir; and the Fergana Valley of Central Asia? They are all strategically located water-rich regions racked by separatist unrest or territorial disputes. Experience has shown that water scarcity occurring in combination with other sources of tensions – including territorial disputes, environmental degradation, poverty, and weak or absent regional institutions – easily stokes conflict … in a silent hydrological war, the resources of transnational rivers, aquifers, and lakes have become the targets of rival appropriation, with the tools of increasing competition ranging from hydroengineering works to cross-border support for proxies. Driving the rival appropriation plans and water nationalism is the notion that sharing waters is a zero-sum game. The danger that the current or emerging riparian battles may slide into armed conflict looms large on the international horizon, given the extent of the water crisis confronting humanity – a crisis that threatens to aggravate the already-grave food situation and slow down the rapid expansion of energy supplies … The growth of water stress and insecurity is an unambiguous reminder of the rise of nontraditional security challenges … Despite the promotion of cooperation on the environment and natural-resource management taking center stage in global diplomacy, international water cooperation still faces major challenges, including managing disputes over the sharing of transnational water resources, building institutionalized cooperation and collaboration, and dealing with limited compliance with international norms and limited funding support for basin-level initiatives. If anything, there is increased mistrust and divisiveness at the regional and international levels. The international community’s ability to avert water wars in the coming decades will depend on its “collective capacity to anticipate tensions and to find the technical and institutional solutions to manage emerging conflicts” … Add to this picture the weak, underdeveloped international legal framework for transnational river basins; there is a dearth of comprehensive and well-accepted international water laws. The norms in relation to internationally shared aquifers are even weaker, even though groundwater has emerged as a critical transboundary resource subject to competitive overexploitation. More fundamentally, the 1997 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses – which took more than a quarter century to develop but whose entry-into-force is still not within sight – has become a symbol of both the international community’s desire for rules to govern common waters and its failure thus far to put its money where its mouth is …

http://www.jpri.org/publications/occasionalpapers/op45.html

WASSERQUELLEN

BGR Newsletter

August 22 – 23, 2013 International Workshop on Groundwater Systems in Europe

… Tagungsbeiträge … stehen jetzt zum Download zur Verfügung. Die Veranstaltung wurde aus Anlass der Fertigstellung der letzten Kartenblätter D5, Budapest und E5, Bukarest der Internationalen Hydrogeologischen Karte von Europa (IHME) gemeinsam von BGR, UNESCO und EuroGeoSurveys organisiert …

http://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Veranstaltungen/workshop_ihme_2013/ihme-2013_inhalt.html

IHME1500 – International Hydrogeological Map of Europe 1:1,500,000 Download Page:

http://www.bgr.de/app/fishy/ihme1500/download.html

Vielen Dank an das Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) für diesen Hinweis! J.B.

Cities and Sustainable Development

2013 NOV 25 … Tacloban in the Philippines has now joined the growing list of cities – including New Orleans, Bangkok, Moscow, New York, Beijing, Rio de Janeiro, and Port-au-Prince, to name just a few – pummeled in recent years by climate catastrophes. Many of the world’s largest cities, built on seacoasts and rivers, face the threat of rising sea levels and intensifying storms. So the new global development agenda now taking shape should empower cities to help lead the way to sustainable development in the twenty-first century … the share of urbanites is around 53% and is likely to rise to around 67% by 2050 … the world’s cities today are estimated to account for more than 80% of global income, with the largest 600 accounting for around half. Most of the new jobs over the next few decades will be created in cities … Cities are also the innovation hubs for public policy … responsible for providing safe water, garbage collection, safe housing, infrastructure, upgraded slums, protection from disasters, and emergency services when catastrophes hit. So it is not surprising that while national governments often are paralyzed by partisan politics, city governments foster action and innovation … three goals: economic prosperity, social inclusion, and environmental sustainability … Achieving these three goals will require good governance, public finance, and effective institutions. Cities will be in the front lines of the battle for sustainable development … A wise political doctrine known as subsidiarity holds that public-policy challenges should be assigned to the lowest level of government able to address them, thereby ensuring maximum democratic participation in problem solving and the greatest opportunity to tailor solutions to genuine local needs. While some issues – for example, a national highway or rail system – require national-level problem solving, many key challenges of sustainable development are best confronted at the urban level. The world’s governments are now negotiating the Sustainable Development Goals, which will guide the world’s development agenda from 2015 to 2030. In an important meeting on September 25, the United Nations General Assembly agreed that the SDGs would be adopted at a global summit in September 2015, with the next two years used to select the priorities. An urban SDG, promoting inclusive, productive, and resilient cities, would greatly empower tens of thousands of cities worldwide to take up the cause of sustainable development for their own citizens, their countries, and the world.

http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/jeffrey-d–sachs-argues-that-urban-areas-must-lead-the-way-toward-environmentally-healthy-and-socially-inclusive-economies

BEZUGSDOKUMENTE Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)

UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development

http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.html

High-level Political Forum … first inaugural meeting … 24 September 2013 …

http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1556

Global Sustainable Development Report

… Executive Summary … was launched at the inaugural session of the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development on 24 September 2013 … final version of the report and its summaries will be published by the end of the year 2013 …

http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1621

Swisspeace – Kompetenzzentrum Friedensförderung (KOFF)

Newsletter – Ressourcenkonflikte

2. Dezember 2013 … Ansätze … um Konflikte um natürliche Ressourcen zu bearbeiten und zu vermeiden, sind genauso divers wie die Rohstoffe selbst. Staatliche Organisationen berichten in dieser Ausgabe über die freiwilligen Grundsätze für Sicherheit und Menschenrechte, über neue Leitlinien zum Schutz von MenschenrechtsverteidigerInnen sowie über eine Ausstellung, welche die Arbeit dieser Personen in rohstoffreichen Gebieten portraitiert. NGOs schildern friedliche Protestbewegungen … und berichten über die Zusammenarbeit … Ziel all dieser Ansätze ist es, zukünftige Spannungen um natürliche Ressourcen zu verhindern und bestehende Konflikte nachhaltig zu bewältigen …

http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Publications/Newsletter/2013/NL_123_D.pdf

engl.:

http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Media/Publications/Newsletter/2013/NL_123_E.pdf

siehe zur Thematik auch eine Neuerscheinung aus der Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung

Schriftenreihe (Bd. 1373) 4,50 €

Der geplünderte Planet – Die Zukunft des Menschen im Zeitalter schwindender Ressourcen

29.11.2013 Die Rohstoffe dieser Erde sind endlich – aber wir leben weithin so, als wären sie es nicht … Dünger oder Daten – unsere Lebensgrundlagen, aber auch Kommunikation, Mobilität und Wohlstand hängen von den Rohstoffen der Erde ab … zumeist geht ihre Ausbeutung mit der massiven Degradierung der Umwelt einher. Zudem ist längst absehbar, dass wichtige Rohstoffe nicht unendlich verfügbar sein werden. Der Chemiker Ugo Bardi erklärt das Entstehen und die Verbreitung von Bodenschätzen aus der Erdgeschichte und beleuchtet deren Rolle für unsere Zivilisation. Er plädiert eindringlich für ein Ende des Plünderns, für einen verantwortungsbewussteren und nachhaltigeren Umgang mit den Schätzen dieser Erde …

http://www.bpb.de/shop/buecher/schriftenreihe/172493/der-gepluenderte-planet

… und ganz neu:

Schriftenreihe (Bd. 1372) 4,50 €

Wasser – Eine Reise in die Zukunft

09.12.2013 Ohne Wasser ist kein Leben möglich. Im Überfluss ist es ebenso zerstörerisch wie bei Mangel. Und Wasser spaltet: in Arme und Reiche, in Verschwender und Sparsame, in Zerstörer und Bewahrer. Es ist begehrt und umkämpft … Dieses Buch handelt vom Wasser in all diesen Facetten: Terje Tvedt hat auf der Suche nach der ganz besonderen Beziehung zwischen Mensch und Wasser und ihrer Zukunft die Erde bereist. Sein Buch ist ebenso informativ wie stimmungsvoll und bestätigt letztlich, was der griechische Philosoph Thales von Milet schon im Altertum erkannte: Das Prinzip aller Dinge ist das Wasser, denn Wasser ist alles und ins Wasser kehrt alles zurück …

http://www.bpb.de/shop/buecher/schriftenreihe/174688/wasser

… was sonst noch so los war:

IDSA

US Rebalancing to the Asia-Pacific: Implications for West Asia

December 11, 2013 … The decline of Marxism and the disintegration of the Soviet Union changed all that. The ideologues of Marxism shifted their sights to the new ideology of Islam. Initially, the emergence of independent states in Central Asia and the Caucasus received its share of international attention. The US interest in the large quantities of oil and gas and US concerns over nuclear proliferation and re-emergence of Islam dominated its foreign policy calculus. Very soon thereafter, West Asia acquired the status of the most crucial region. After the nine-eleven, the “Global War on Terrorism” led the US into long-drawn-out wars on Afghanistan and Iraq. In the process its military reach extended and deepened throughout West Asia and beyond. It is China that now occupies the epicentre of US worldview. In 2011, the Obama administration made a series of pronouncements on a pivot to Asia-Pacific … A year after … the policy was rechristened “rebalancing”. It down played the military aspects of the pivot, emphasized economic cooperation and called for closer engagement with China. A Trans-Pacific Partnership (TTP) between the US and some twelve states in the region would create a free trade area. Simultaneously, the US would enhance its economic assistance and deepen its diplomatic involvement. Consequently, the attitude to China has moved from tacit confrontation to cautious accommodation … Asia-Pacific has become a hotbed of competition; mainly between the US and China. The US needs to stand firm with its Allies in the face of an assertive Chinese foreign policy. It also needs to demonstrate that the decade-long wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have not sapped its will to lead the world, and that its economic downturn would not diminish its commitment to its Allies … The Europeans are unsure of what the pivot might bring to them. The US has had to placate the European Allies … In West Asia, Israel and the Arab states in the Gulf are equally worried … there are diametrically opposite prescriptions from within the US think tanks calling for quietly downgrading involvement in the sorry mess of West Asia as the problems there can at best be managed, but never solved … The US administration has sought to assuage the West Asian feelings that the ties with Asia-Pacific would not be at the expense of West Asia … Secretary of Defence Chuck Hagel has pronounced the US ties to the region as unbreakable, but that they needed to be “renewed and reinvigorated after a decade of war.” At the same time, however, he has had to defend the US commitment to prioritize its posture, activity and investment in Asia-Pacific leaving the people in Europe, West Asia and Asia-Pacific thoroughly confused … There are two factors that have facilitated the direction of perceptible US retreat from West Asia. One, the production of shale oil and gas has largely diminished US dependence on the imported energy from West Asia … Two, the US economic turndown has put severe limitations on its power projection worldwide … The soothing sounds to the European and West Asian Allies, in the circumstances, remain just sounds. A greater attention to Asia-Pacific would necessarily translate into that much lesser attention everywhere else. Asia-Pacific is bound to remain at the top of the US foreign policy agenda – till the international situation warrants a relook. In coming years, the US global posture may set less ambitious goals and allocate fewer resources to pursue them.

http://idsa.in/idsacomments/USRebalancingtotheAsiaPacific_gdietl_111213

… und dann hatten wir da noch:

131216 Yaakov Kirschen, Jerusalem Post, Mid East Snow Job

131202 Tomicek Weihnachten2013

KALENDER 2014

Sitzungskalender des Deutschen Bundestages

http://www.bundestag.de/bundestag/plenum/sitzungskalender/sitz_pdf_14.pdf

Interkultureller Kalender

http://www.berlin.de/imperia/md/content/lb-integration-migration/publikationen/religion/interkult_kal_2014_web.pdf?start&ts=1381991262&file=interkult_kal_2014_web.pdf

Allen ein frohes Weihnachtsfest und einen guten Start nach 2014!

Jörg Barandat

editorial@waternews.de

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