Barandat – WATERINTAKE 26/2013

W A T E R I N T A K E

26/2013

24.11.2013

… cycling and walking are difficult not just because of poor planning. It is also because of our mindset that only those who move in a car have a status and road rights. Anyone who walks or cycles is poor, wretched and destined to be marginalised, if not obliterated … Every time there is an attempt to take a part of the existing road and convert it into a cycle track, it is virulently opposed. The argument is it will take away space from cars and add to congestion. But that is exactly what we need to do; reduce lanes for cars and add space for buses, cycles and pedestrians. This is the only way to get out of the ever-growing car-bulge on roads …

Sunita Narain, 18.11.13 Come out and claim the road

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/come-out-and-claim-road

WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

Water cooperation for a secure world

November 23, 2013 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has repeatedly emphasized the need to explore the linkage between water, peace and security. Now, new research by the Strategic Foresight Group demonstrates that he has been right to do so. Empirical evidence in 148 countries and 205 shared river basins indicates that any two nations engaged in active water cooperation do not go to war. Of the 148 countries covered by the report "Water Cooperation for a Secure World," 37 are at risk of going to war over issues other than water, including land, religion, history and ideology. These also happen to be precisely the 37 countries which do not engage in active water cooperation with their neighbors. The good news is that more than a hundred of those countries which promote water cooperation in both letter and practice also enjoy peaceful and secure relationships with their neighboring countries. Water and peace are interdependent. Despite the growing international consensus in the international community on the significance of water as an instrument of cooperation (as reflected in the UN’s designation of 2013 as the Year of Water Cooperation), many analysts continue to project water as a source of potential conflict. It is true that lakes, rivers and glaciers around the world are shrinking. Growing pressures of population, economic growth, urbanization, climate change and deforestation can further deplete water resources, thus causing social and economic upheavals, but this need not be so. Active water cooperation can help overcome environmental challenges and usher in a new era of peace, trust and security. Beyond the essential legal agreements, active cooperation also requires sustained institutions of trans-boundary cooperation; joint investment programs; collective management of water-related infrastructure; a system for regularly and jointly monitoring water flows together with a shared vision of the best allocation of water resources between agriculture and other sectors; and a forum for frequent interaction between top decision-makers. An institutional infrastructure should enable political leaders to discuss exchanges between water and other public goods such as transit, national security or large public works … The new Strategic Foresight Group report introduces the water cooperation quotient (WCQ), which measures the effectiveness and intensity of trans-boundary cooperation in water using the parameters mentioned above. The 37 countries that face the risk of war happen to have a WCQ below 33.33 …

http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/11/water-cooperation-middle-east-security.html

Bezugsdokument: Strategic Foresight Group (SFG) – Report "Water Cooperation for a Secure World" + interactive map

http://www.strategicforesight.com/news_inner.php?id=64

http://strategicforesight.com/water-cooperation-map/

SFG – WATER DIPLOMACY

http://www.strategicforesight.com/focus.php?id=2

Schutzgesetz gegen drohende Internet-Hackerangriffe auf Wasserversorger

23. November 2013 Haben Internet-Hacker jetzt auch die Wasserversorger im Fokus? Egal wie die Frage beantwortet wird, die neue Bundesregierung wird die Trinkwasserversorgung als "Kritische Infrastruktur" in einem IT-Sicherheitsgesetz erfassen. Ein Referentenentwurf liegt bereits seit März 2013 vor … Anders als in den USA sind die Wasserwerke – zumal die Großen – auch IT-technisch auf einem hohen Stand, Smart Meter für Wasser – immerhin Ziel der Attacken bei Strom – gibt es bei Wasser bis auf Weiteres nicht, und Angriffe auf die Abrechnungssysteme führen zu Ärger, aber nicht zu Bedrohungen … Übrigens, nach dem was aus Brüssel zu vernehmen ist, gehören Wasserversorger in Europa gar nicht zu den "Kritischen Infrastrukturen". Die übermittelte Begründung kann nur als "typisch europäisch" bezeichnet werden: "da sie nicht grenzüberschreitend tätig sind". (ohne Worte) …

http://lebensraumwasser.com/2013/11/23/schutzgesetz-gegen-drohende-internet-hackerangriffe-auf-wasserversorger/

130921 Royaards pure_life

Water officials forced out of public hearing – Angry locals disrupt WFMC project talks

23 Nov 2013 The participants – mostly students, residents and activists – disrupted the morning session of the meeting with Water and Flood Management Committee (WFMC) officials with hand clappers and whistles. The Samut Songkhram locals boo officials of the Water and Flood Management Committee and hold up placards condemning the floodway project during a public hearing for the scheme, which is part of the 350-billion-baht water management plan … Instead of filling out the forms, the locals handed the officials and provincial governor Chonchuen Boonyasart a petition signed by 22,473 residents opposing the floodway … says the project’s planning process was not transparent and the floodway will not benefit locals. The hearing organisers decided to close the curtains on the meeting soon after and officials fled the college hall amid tight security and shouts of "Get out" from residents … Thai-Water Partnership chairman Hanarong Yaowalers said the government had failed to run proper hearings. He accused it of focusing the meetings on participants who will not be directly affected by the water management projects. He said one hearing per province is not enough to effectively gauge public opinion.

http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/local/381268/water-officials-forced-out-of-public-hearing

Avert water wars – build desalination plants

November 22, 2013 Get ready for the water wars. Most of the world’s population takes water for granted, just like air – two life-sustaining substances … in India right now, as in so many other places around the globe, drinkable water has become such a precious commodity that it’s dragging the world into "water wars to follow the ones for the control of fuel oil" … As water grows scarce, more countries are building dams on rivers to hog most of the water for themselves, depriving the nations downstream … And as the Earth’s population crossed the 7 billion mark last year, more and more water sources are so polluted that drinking the water can kill you … By most estimates, half the world’s people live in places where clean water is not easily available. Bangalore, India, for example once had 400 lakes in its vicinity. Now, the New Indian Express newspaper wrote, only 40 are left, and all of them are polluted … One of the biggest areas of conflict is the India-Pakistan-China nexus. Multiple rivers intertwine the countries, and as water levels fall, all three are building dams to keep much of the water for themselves. China has built more dams than any other nation, making numerous countries angry because Chinese rivers flow into more adjacent states than from any other state … China has approved plans to build 54 more dams on rivers, many of which serve as the lifeblood of neighboring states. In China’s north, "desertification" is turning vast areas into dust bowls. So the government is trying to divert 6 trillion gallons of water per year from the Yangtze River to reclaim the area, worrying people in other parts of China who rely on the Yangtze for their own water. In Iran, farmers in one region destroyed a water-pump station that was carrying water away from their area to the city of Yazd. That started a fight with security forces, but the farmers are remaining on station to make sure the pump is not rebuilt … Egypt’s military threats against Ethiopia begin to make sense when you realize that Egypt’s 84 million people draw 95 percent of their water from the Nile River … The U.S. House of Representatives recently held a hearing on water shortages and other threats in Central Asia, and Rep. Dana Rohrabacher, R-Costa Mesa (Orange County), warned of another potential conflict, quoting Uzbekistan’s president, Islam Karimov: "Uzbekistan will even use weapons if necessary" against its northern neighbor Kazakhstan "to get the water passing through (Kyrgyzstan) territory that we intend to accumulate in reservoirs" …

http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/brinkley/article/Avert-water-wars-build-desalination-plants-5002898.php

In this Oct. 13, 2011 photo, members of the Royal New Zealand defense force pump sea water into large holding tanks ready to be used by the desalination plant in Funafuti, Tuvalu, South Pacific. Funafuti is the capital of Tuvalu, a group of atolls situated north of Fiji and northwest of Samoa, in the South Pacific ocean. The atolls are suffering a severe drought and water shortage, coupled with contaminated ground water due to rising sea levels. The governments of Australia, New Zealand and the United States are providing desalination plants to alleviate the critical water shortage for some 10,000 islanders.

AP Photo/Alastair Grant

http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/brinkley/article/Avert-water-wars-build-desalination-plants-5002898.php#photo-5491330

Water source of fights in California, other states

November 22, 2013 While fights over water simmer around the world, the United States has its own share of arguments and debates – one of them right here in California. The state is depleting groundwater aquifers at a rapid rate. That’s one reason for the controversial proposal to build a pair of tunnels on the east side of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to bring water south … Florida, Georgia and Alabama are locked in an angry dispute over who has rights to waters in a shared river basin. The argument seemed unresolvable, as Congress has generally declined to get involved. But last month, Florida filed a federal lawsuit charging Georgia with hogging too much of the rivers‘ water. Georgia argues that it has full rights to the water in the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers that flow through the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to more than 5 million people. Its neighbors say Georgia uses so much of the water … At the same time, officials from Montana to West Virginia have been writing to President Obama … asking him to intervene on one side or another of another acrimonious debate over whether upstream reservoir water from the Missouri River should be released into the Mississippi River … That’s a sampling of "water wars" sprouting around the United States. Sooner or later, Congress is going to have to step up.

http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/brinkley/article/Water-source-of-fights-in-California-other-states-5002896.php

Water systems research fills in the details for Africa’s largest dam

Nov. 22, 2013 When the government of Ethiopia finishes building the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) in 2017 or 2018, it will not only have built the largest hydroelectric power-generation plant in Africa, but also stirred up tensions among African nations, and indelibly altered a river that itself has guided millennia of human history in the region … the dam will have a huge impact on water resources on the north-flowing river’s next stops: Sudan and Egypt … what makes GERD even more contentious is that many parties don’t think the Ethiopian government has provided sufficient technical detail on the project … GERD fill policies and their implications for hydropower generation and the Nile’s downstream flow. "If they fill it slowly, there are fewer effects on the livelihoods of people who live downstream, but that means Ethiopia won’t be able to generate as much hydropower early on" … if Ethiopia fills the dam quickly, the country might make a quicker return on its investment — and aggravate the Egyptian government, which fears the dam will disrupt agriculture in Egypt … One way or another, this process will have staggering implications, diverting about 74 billion cubic meters of water from the Blue Nile … http://www.news.wisc.edu/22337

In Oil and Gas Country, Water Recycling Can Be an Extremely Hard Sell

November 21, 2013 “We’re trying to preserve what we have for future generations,” Mr. Davis, the operations manager for Fasken Oil and Ranch, said about collecting clean water. Though required in abundance for oil and gas production, it is increasingly hard to find in drought-scorched Texas, where water use by drillers has come under increasing scrutiny. With that in mind, after lacing water with sand and chemicals to use during the process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, Fasken pipes more than 330,000 gallons of the resulting wastewater each day through an on-site recycling system. Negatively charged waste in the water reacts with positively charged ions in the metal pipes, so the undesirable materials settle out and leave clean water that can be used for another hydraulic fracture. Fasken now recycles close to half of the water it uses for fracking, Mr. Davis said. But the process is still experimental. Recycling is a money-loser for the company for now, adding about $70,000 to the cost of handling the 1.9 million gallons of water needed for each hydraulic fracture. As the drought continues to take its toll on resources, more companies are considering the long-term benefits of water recycling, and state officials are trying to make that transition easier. Despite that momentum, recycling is far from a mainstream practice among oil and gas drillers because of the associated costs and the prevalence of disposal wells. For Fasken, Mr. Davis said, recycling is simply more expensive than using freshwater … No state agency tracks how much water is being recycled … Recycling cuts down significantly on disposal and trucking costs, though it does not eliminate them. Mr. Davis, of Fasken Oil and Ranch, said that after each recycling operation, three to five trucks must carry and dispose of solid waste that is removed from the wastewater, such as boron, sulfates or even radioactive metals. A significant amount of water — about 500,000 gallons — is also needed to drill the initial mineral well, and recycling that “would take a lot of equipment and a lot of money” …

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/in-oil-and-gas-country-water-recycling-can-be-an-extremely-hard-sell.html

Global Water Technologies supports new report on water infrastructure needs

Nov. 20, 2013 Global Water Technologies … is developing smart water solutions to reduce water loss in the nation’s drinking water distribution system and supports recommendations in a new report on such efforts in the Great Lakes states. "The Case for Fixing the Leaks" notes aging underground infrastructure is wasting an estimated 66.5 billion gallons annually in the Great Lakes region, according to the Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT), a Chicago-based nonprofit focused on sustainable cities. "The amount of money lost through aging infrastructure and collateral damage to communities from increasing numbers of water main breaks is an issue that deserves national attention and our region is taking a leadership role in developing solutions," said Erik Hromadka, CEO of Global Water Technologies and one of the individuals cited in the report. Water rates are among the fastest-rising utility bills and customers are starting to demand greater efficiency and transparency. Global Water Technologies is developing solutions that include sensors and software to identify hidden leaks in underground pipes and better reporting with incentives for water customers. The company’s "People + Pipes + Policy" approach recognizes change in the system must include customer education, infrastructure upgrades and innovative regulation … The report notes failing infrastructure and faulty metering has contributed to an increase of 90 percent in the cost of water between 1996 and 2010. Meanwhile, investments in water infrastructure and new technologies have been effective ways to save money and create new jobs …

http://online.wsj.com/article/PR-CO-20131120-907557.html

Bezugsdokument: The Case for Fixing the Leaks

http://www.cnt.org/media/CNT_CaseforFixingtheLeaks.pdf

A water war in Israel? Hardly.

November 20, 2013 Detractors of Israel often seem so overtaken with critical fervor that they miss the truths that may seem obvious to more fair-minded observers of the Middle East. Take, for example, Saree Makdisi’s attack on Israel for supposedly cutting off Palestinians‘ access to water. He wrote in his Op-Ed article Monday that Israel uses 80% of the West Bank’s groundwater and makes it practically impossible for Palestinians to find new sources of water … Such misleading claims do a disservice to the Palestinians by diverting attention from steps that can bring about a real improvement in water access for Palestinians. Israel can be instrumental in bringing about such an improvement. Genuine friends of the Palestinians would do well to inform themselves of the real water situation in Israel and the West Bank rather than be misled by the same tired diatribes to which we have regrettably grown accustomed. They’ll be surprised by what they discover. On the eve of the Six-Day War in 1967, the Palestinians had at their disposal 65 million cubic meters of natural freshwater per year. By 2006, because of intensive Israeli investment in water infrastructure in Palestinian areas and increased access to Israel’s supply, the figure was 180 million cubic meters. Furthermore, Israel’s and the Palestinians‘ per-capita water consumption rates have been steadily converging, with the current difference being about 30%. This has been due in part to Israel’s growing population, a prolonged drought and depleting groundwater sources. But it is also attributable to a very substantial improvement in water infrastructure in Palestinian areas. In 1995, as part of the Oslo Accords, Israel and the Palestinians signed a water agreement, which is still in force. The Joint Water Commission (JWC) established by this agreement still meets several times a year to deliberate on matters of mutual interest. The work of the JWC is regularly monitored and reported to the international community. Despite the fact that Israel has scrupulously abided by the agreement and has over the years even gone significantly beyond it in the Palestinians‘ favor, Israel still finds itself being unfairly maligned for exploiting the mountain aquifer beneath Judea and Samaria. The sad truth is that Israel’s efforts to assist the Palestinians in improving the water and sewage systems in Judea and Samaria and Gaza have largely been met with politically motivated refusal, causing severe damage to the environment shared by both sides. A welcome exception has been a sewage treatment project in the Hebron area, in which Israeli and Palestinian water authorities, with international partners, have succeeded in reducing local sewage pollution. This is an important example that illustrates what can be achieved when reflexive animosity gives way to common sense. More broadly, Israel is a world leader in water technology, management and monitoring … This has enormous potential for the Middle East at large and is especially propitious for the Palestinians, who face severe challenges regarding water. A combination of proper pipe maintenance, introduction of water reclamation technologies and desalination could have an enormously positive effect on the Palestinians‘ water use. Imagine if even a fraction of the energy devoted by the Palestinians and their ostensible supporters to making misleading claims about Israel were devoted to cooperation on water infrastructure. The region’s water scarcity could be a thing of the past. Israel’s "water bashers" might want to listen to Jay Famiglietti, the expert on water technology who heads UC Irvine’s Hydrology & Climate Research Group. Last year, Famiglietti and a team of researchers visited Israel, the West Bank and Jordan. Referring to Israel’s water management system as "a well-oiled, robust machine," Famiglietti said: "For Israel, there are clear economic and political benefits for improved water management in Palestine and Jordan. With any luck, water management will come forward as an issue of mutual interest for regional cooperation" …

http://www.latimes.com/opinion/opinion-la/la-ol-israel-water-palestinians-blowback-20131120,0,4900065.story#axzz2lYfa4ag0

Bezug: November 18, 2013, Saree Makdisi: Israel’s policy of erasure

… The expansion of Jewish settlements in the occupied territories is part of Israel’s project to gradually suffocate the Palestinians. But it’s only one indicator, and a misleading one at that. Because even if no new settlements are built, Palestinian homes will still be bulldozed and Palestinian olive orchards will still be uprooted; Palestinian water wells will run dry and Palestinian fields will brown and crack for lack of irrigation (Israel denies Palestinians access to water from the Jordan River and makes it almost impossible for them to dig new wells, even as it uses, according to a World Bank estimate, more than 80% of the West Bank’s groundwater) …

http://www.latimes.com/opinion/commentary/la-oe-makdisi-settlements-israel-palestinians-kerr-20131118,0,1866660.story#axzz2lYfa4ag0

Water shortage observed in six provinces of Iran

17 November 2013 The water shortage has reached a critical level in Tabriz, Isfahan, Khuzestan, Qum, Mashhad and Hamadan provinces … currently a special program is being worked out in order to solve the water shortage problem in next three years. "A drought is being observed in the country for nearly 13 years. The demand for water increases with the population growth" … In July Iran’s water supply company warned in a special statement about the water shortage in several cities of the country and imposing quotas for fresh water. Iran is located in an arid zone and the country has repeatedly faced with drought in recent 40 years. The drought of 1992-2002 caused a major blow on agriculture. There were imposed quotas for fresh water in several cities including Tehran.

http://en.trend.az/regions/iran/2212052.html

California water atlas seeks to clarify water issues

11/16/2013 In California, few issues are as divisive as water. It pits North against South, fisherman versus farmer. With cycles of drought, dwindling groundwater and a future marked by a changing climate and a thirsty, booming population, no other resource is as imperiled in the Golden State. Yet many Californians turn on their taps knowing little about the complicated systems and politics involved in the delivery and whisking away of the precious resource at their homes. Access to data about groundwater levels, pollutants and who owns the rights to siphon water from rivers and aquifers is available through government websites, but the information is often obscured by outdated or ineffective technology. Now a group of self-described "nature nerds" made up of database experts, academics and conservationists are trying to bring meaning to the state’s mass of water data. The effort is called The New California Water Atlas, and will use interactive maps powered by government data that are currently publicly available, but hard to synthesize … "We want people to understand the California water system as a whole, both natural and man-made systems," said Laci Videmsky, the atlas‘ 35-year-old project director. "It’s an owners‘ manual of sorts." The people are building the new atlas on the modern principle that free and open access to government data will create a more informed citizenry, and better policy … "Our millennial generation is fairly ignorant about the great California water system we are about to inherit, but we have a plan to solve this problem," Chacha Sikes, 38, another new atlas group member, wrote in the journal Boom published by the University of California …

http://www.mercurynews.com/california/ci_24537445/calif-water-atlas-seeks-clarify-water-issues

Bezugsdokument: The New California Water Atlas – Making water understandable in California

http://ca.statewater.org/

1979 California Water Atlas

http://www.davidrumsey.com/blog/2010/1/21/landmark-1979-california-water-atlas-debuts-online

USAID to help Georgian Energy Ministry over energy policy and strategy development

15 November 2013 Georgian Deputy Energy Minister Mariam Valishvili attended a presentation of the project of the Agency for International Development (USAID) called ‚Hydro generation and energy planning project‘. USAID will work out a document ‚Georgian hydropower market model-2015‘, as well as assist the Ministry of Energy in working out the energy policy and strategy … The Ministry of Energy and USAID signed a memorandum on cooperation in 2012. This envisages the development of a new model for the energy market. … Work on the model will be completed by the end of 2014. Its implementation will begin in stages from 2015.

http://en.trend.az/regions/scaucasus/georgia/2211344.html

siehe auch Ministry of Energy of Georgia

http://hydropower.ge/eng/6/id15

Ein Radar findet Wasser in Afrikas Wüsten

14. November 2013 … Eine Region, in der Wasser schon heute umkämpft ist, ist die Turkana-Halbwüste im Nordwesten Kenias an der Grenze zu Äthiopien. Zwar hält sich dort, mitten in der dürren Steppe, der weltweit größte dauerhafte Wüstensee. Doch der trocknet langsam aus und versalzt zunehmend. Außerdem könnte Äthiopien den Kenianern buchstäblich das Wasser am Tukana-See abgraben, wenn der im Bau befindliche Staudamm am einzigen Zulauf des Sees – dem Omo-River – fertig ist. Noch immer wird um den Damm zwischen den Grenzstaaten heftig gestritten. Da kommt es gerade recht, dass ein französischer Geologe jetzt ausgerechnet unter der Turkana-Wüste zwei unterirdische Seen, sogenannte Aquiferen, entdeckt hat – voll mit frischem Grundwasser. Diese Quellen lassen sich relativ einfach anzapfen, sodass das Wasser für die Bevölkerung nutzbar gemacht werden kann. Künftig sollen Nomaden auch ihr Vieh damit tränken und Bauern ihre Felder bewässern. Alain Gachet und seine Firma Radar Technologies International versuchen schon länger im Auftrag der Vereinten Nationen, in Afrika unterirdische Süßwasser-Reservoire aufzuspüren. Auch in Gabun, Tschad, Angola und Sudan wurde der Franzose in den letzten Jahren schon fündig … Anhand von Radaraufnahmen, die Satelliten vom Weltraum aus gemacht haben, kann Gachet von seinem Schreibtisch aus Hunderttausende Quadratkilometer Erdoberfläche nach Wasser absuchen. Erst später reist er dorthin, wo er einen unterirdischen See vermutet und führt Testbohrungen durch. Der Erfolg spricht für seine Methode, die er "Watex" nennt. Das steht für "water exploration": Inzwischen habe er eine Trefferquote von 95 Prozent, erklärt Gachet. Früher habe nur jede dritte Bohrung Wasser zutage gebracht … Bereits 1998 zeigte ein Forscherteam des US Geological Service, dass sich der Wasserstand von Aquiferen anhand der Höhe des darüber liegenden Wüstenbodens ablesen lässt. Sackt der Boden an der jeweiligen Stelle ab, ist der Pegel im unterirdischen See gefallen. Umgekehrt hat die Landschaftsform aber auch Einfluss darauf, wo ein unterirdischer See entsteht. Ausgetrocknete Flussbetten, Täler und Risse in der Erdoberfläche wirken wie Auffangtrichter für Regen. Gibt es keine oberirdischen Seen oder Flüsse, stehen die Chancen gut, dass ein wahrer Schatz dort verborgen ist, wo solche Trichter vorkommen. 2007 hat die Europäische Weltraumbehörde Esa darum ausprobiert, wie gut sich solche Trichter mit Satellitenaufnahmen aufspüren lassen. Benjamin Kötz ist Leiter der damals gestarteten TIGER-Initiative zur Wasserversorgung Afrikas. "Im Niger haben wir mit Radar-Satelliten genau diese Trichter-Gebiete gefunden, in denen sich Grundwasser bilden kann. Insofern ist der Fund in Kenia der nächste, logische Schritt", sagt Kötz … Das zur US-Weltraumbehörde Nasa zählende Jet Propulsion Laboratory arbeitet schon an der nächsten Generation der Radargeräte. In drei bis fünf Jahren sollen sie nicht mehr die Erdoberfläche nach Hinweisen auf Aquiferen abtasten. Sie sollen das Grundwasser selbst aufspüren und abschätzen können, wie tief es liegt. Das Radargerät, das Nasa-Forscher Essam Heggy und seine Kollegen entwickelt haben, war ursprünglich dazu gedacht, unter der Mars-Oberfläche schlummerndes Wasser zu finden. Da irdische Trockenzonen sich gar nicht so sehr von den kargen Landschaften auf dem Roten Planeten unterscheiden, funktioniert es auch auf der Erde …

http://www.zeit.de/wissen/2013-11/hightech-wassersuche-afrika

WASSERQUELLEN

European Commission – Scientific and Technical Research Report

Bioenergy and Water

18.09.13 An important challenge in the twenty-first century is to supply the growing world population that requires more and more energy per person with sufficient energy. Today, this energy supply is mainly based on fossil energy carriers that have large drawbacks, like the impact on climate change and the depletion of the resources. Renewable energy, for example wind energy, solar energy or bioenergy, might be important energy sources in the future. Bioenergy is renewable energy from organic material. It corresponds to three main feedstock categories (agriculture, forestry & waste) for three main uses (transport, heat & electricity). The development of bioenergy is often considered as a positive option due to its contribution to the mitigation of climate change, agricultural and rural development, energy security and innovation policies. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised during the last few years about risks or bad practices, sometimes evolving into large scale controversy, especially in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. The need to ensure that bioenergy development will be based on sustainable water management is in our view essential, taking into account the need to increase food production and to simultaneously accommodate other uses of water resources, both for quantity & quality. This publication thus contains data and information related to methodologies of impact assessment, practical case studies, scenario analysis, discussion of sustainability certification schemes, all focusing on bioenergy & water … Contents

– The Biofuel and Bioenergy Roadmaps of the International Energy Agency

– EU framework, Renewable Energy Directive and the quantitative targets from the NREAPs (National Renewable Energy Action Plans) of the 27 European Union Member States

– Bioenergy & Water, Challenges & opportunities

… Policy should be devised to promote the optimal use of land, water and biomass resources to meet needs for food, materials and energy. Design of policy for bioenergy need to balance multiple objectives and should be based on a holistic perspective recognizing the multiple drivers and effects of land use and land use change …

– Water footprint quantification of energy at global level

… The blue water footprints [WF] of fossil and nuclear energy and renewables like wind and thermal solar energy are much smaller than the blue WFs of hydropower and bioenergy … The most water-efficient way to generate bioenergy is to use total biomass … generation of electricity is the second best option … the development of third generation biofuels, biofuels from algae, is an interesting development that might decrease the WFs of biofuels …

– Agrofuels and water in Argentina

– Bioenergy & water: Brazilian sugar cane ethanol

– Hydrological consequences of jatropha on waste lands in developing countries

-Water Impact of French biofuels development at the 2030 horizon

– Bioenergy & water in Australia

– Impact of land use change due to bioenergy on regional hydrology on Midwestern US hydrology

– Mapping the potential water use of biofuel feedstock production in South Africa

– The water footprint of biofuels from microalgae

– EU Legislative tools to protect water resources

– U.S. Federal and State Water Laws’ Impact on Bioenergy Policy

– Certification systems and other schemes for bioenergy-related water impacts

– Bioenergy & water: Doing the right thing? A literature review

http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/111111111/29748

Direkt zu Dokument

http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/111111111/29748/1/onlinefinalv8novemb.pdf

Für diesen Hinweis ein herzliches Dankeschön in das Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie! J.B.

UK Parliament – Library Research Paper

Water Bill

21 November 2013 … is prepared for MPs and their staff to aid in their scrutiny of the Water Bill 2013 at its Second Reading on 25 November 2013. It provides briefing on key issues; additional briefing is available to MPs and their staff upon request … Water resources are under significant pressure in parts of the UK and water supply constraints are predicted to spread in future … The Water Bill aims to deliver more resilient water supplies and lead to cheaper and more efficient management of water resources in the longer term … concerns have been raised that domestic customers may be disadvantaged by the reforms, that water companies may discriminate against new market entrants, and that the Bill may contribute to unsustainable abstraction. The Government believes that it has effectively managed these risks …

http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/RP13-67.pdf

Topics:

http://www.parliament.uk/topics/utilities.htm

http://www.parliament.uk/topics/water.htm

GWSP Conference Website on:

Water in the Anthropocene: Challenges for Science and Governance. Indicators, Thresholds and Uncertainties of the Global Water System

Bonn, Germany on 21-24 May 2013 …

Rivers and the Nexus: Water, Energy and Food Security in Large Basins

http://conference2013.gwsp.org/223.html#c755

Presentations: http://conference2013.gwsp.org/229.html

… und dann hatten wir da noch:

131119 Stuttmann_Exportueberschuss

131120 Stuttmann Bundestag

Mit den besten Grüßen von der Elbe

Jörg Barandat editorial@waternews.de

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