Joerg Barandat – WATERINTAKE 25/2013

W A T E R I N T A K E

25/2013

13.11.2013

World Toilet Day, 19 November 2013

“Sanitation is a sensitive issue. It is an unpopular subject. Perhaps that is why the sanitation crisis has not been met with the kind of response we need – but that must change.”

Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General

… 1.1 billion people, or 15 per cent of the global population, practice open defecation … is one of the main causes of diarrhoea, which results in the deaths of more than 750,000 children under age 5 every year … Each year, children lose 272 million school days due to diarrhea …

Sanitation Drive to 2015 … is an advocacy campaign working to meet the Millennium Development Goal sanitation target and end open defecation …

1. Sanitation is a human right …

2. Sanitation is vital for good health …

3. Sanitation brings dignity, equality and safety …

4. Sanitation is a good economic investment …

5. Sanitation sustains clean environments …

http://sanitationdrive2015.org/

WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

More Oil and Gas Drillers Turn to Water Recycling

November 11, 2013 When the rain stopped falling in Texas, the prairie grass yellowed, the soil cracked and oil drillers were confronted with a crisis. After years of easy access to cheap, plentiful water, the land they prized for its vast petroleum wealth was starting to dry up … But drillers have found a way to get by with much less water: They recycle it using systems that not long ago they may have eyed with suspicion … Just a few years ago, many drillers suspected water recyclers were trying to sell an unproven idea designed to drain money from multimillion dollar businesses. Now the system is helping drillers use less freshwater and dispose of less wastewater. Recycling is rapidly becoming a popular and economic solution for a burgeoning industry. The change is happening so swiftly that regulators are racing to keep up and in some cases taking steps to make it easier for drillers to recycle …

http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/oil-gas-drillers-turn-water-recycling-20847552

Water conservation

10th, November 2013 Water … is an issue that will define our times in the world in general and in the Middle East & North Africa (Mena) region in particular. MENA … needs to pay greater attention to the issue of proper water management, conserving this precious resource so as to help secure its water supplies for generations through ongoing population and economic growth. According to some estimates, Mena countries are home to five per cent of the world population. But the region contains less than one per cent of the world’s annual renewable freshwater. The demand for this critical natural resource in the domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors has exploded in recent decades following a rapid growth in population, urbanization and industrial development … Oman too faces the challenge of managing relatively scarce water resources with continued economic and population growth. Obviously, the need of the hour is to strive to utilise new technologies and new strategies to conserve and expand the supplies of fresh water … water loss in the Sultanate exceeds water gain … Desalination though very expensive is fast becoming the major option for water supply in arid countries like Oman. Water conservation assumes great importance in agricultural, industrial and domestic sector in view of the fact that some estimates put the country water deficit at around 370 million cubic metres. What this all adds up to is a fact that rational use of water is key to the conservation of this precious resource. Omani authorities have launched from time to time nation-wide water conservation campaigns and the central point of the campaign is that water conservation needs to be everyone’s top priority. The reason is not far to seek. Water is our most precious resource, vital to our daily lives, our economies and to the health of our environment … Experts say we all should embrace water conservation as a way of life. For example, for washing dishes or fruits and vegetables, it is best to fill washbasin or any big vessel instead of opening tap … As for washing clothes, water consumption can be reduced if the appropriate amount of cloths is equivalent to the full capacity of the washing machine …

http://main.omanobserver.om/?p=29084

Water Authority, Agriculture Ministry to up water quantities for farmers

11/10/2013 … At the start of the new year, farmers will receive an increased quantity of water for agricultural needs as well as a uniform price for the water they consume, the Agriculture Ministry and Water Authority announced … will be receiving an allocation of water for three years in advance, as well as a substantial increase in water quotas – an increase of more than 20% in comparison to the water allocated for 2013, the authorities explained. In addition, rather than pricing agricultural fresh water according to three different levels, the Water Authority will be offering one standard price that is only 3 agorot more than today’s lowest rate. By implementing such new measures, the hope is that farmers will be able to operate more effectively and with a greater sense of stability …

http://www.jpost.com/Enviro-Tech/Water-Authority-Agriculture-Ministry-up-water-quantities-for-farmers-331153

Limited water means innovations to agriculture – Agriculture industry adapts to water

November 9, 2013 – Farmers need their water. Bad news is they haven’t had as much of it in recent years. But in good news, they’re learning to get by with less of it. For example, the percentage of irrigated cotton in the area has decreased from 50 percent of the total acreage to 37 percent … Many producers have converted pivot systems to low-energy precision application, or LEPA … method involves minimal amounts of water pressure landing close to the ground surface …

http://lubbockonline.com/local-news/2013-11-09/limited-water-means-innovations-agriculture

The Trinidad Water Riots of 1903

Friday 1 November 2013 … A characteristic of Trinidad life in the late 19th century was an enormous waste of water. In 1874 with a population of 25,000 people, the delivery of water in Port-of-Spain was 1 ¾ million gallons – averaging 65 to 71 gallons per head, more than twice the allowance of London. A report of 1880 stated: ‘In nearly every yard, and at almost every house, passers in the street will hear the sound of water running, and, as the gutters show, to waste, in addition baths of unnecessary and unknown dimensions have been constructed, fountains erected, and gardens irrigated to an extent which could not have been contemplated.’ It was recommended that meters should be used to prevent waste but this was ignored … An engineer was called upon to reform the system in the 1890s and recommended the development of more sources of water supply by building reservoirs and introducing water meters. In 1896, all of Port-of-Spain was up in arms at the ordinance authorising meters to be put upon large plunge baths and providing for increased rates … In 1899 the Governor, Sir Hubert Jerningham, didn’t help matters by abolishing the Borough of Port-of-Spain and its council, deemed to be petty and inefficient in the management of its affairs … In 1902, an ordinance was introduced again – and again public meetings were held against the government and the meter system. The bill was withdrawn but this time people were prosecuted for wasting water … On 5 March 1903, yet another water ordinance was published … As soon as the bill appeared on 5 March, violent articles were written against it. This led to aggressive speeches being made by members of a Ratepayers Association at a public meeting … On 23 March, the Governor, Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney, added more fuel to the flames by insisting on admission by ticket only into the council chamber at The Red House, the seat of colonial government, to hear the debate. It was this notice – that tickets would be required by the public for admission – that acted as a spark for the water riots … The Red House was pelted with stones by a large crowd of people … and eventually burnt to the ground. The police were called out, two Royal Navy ships, The Pallas and The Rocket landed troops, in addition to the 250 men of the Lancashire Fusiliers already deployed at barracks in Port-of-Spain. The ominous Riot Act was read to the crowd, and then the policemen were given the order to fire on the protestors … The Red House burnt out after the riot on 23 March 1903 … The Commission of Enquiry formed after the riot detailed that 471 rounds of ammunition had been discharged. A total of 16 people were killed on the spot or died of their wounds through the use of ‘authorised firing’ and 43 others treated at hospital for injuries received … It was not until 1914 that the local council and municipal ordinance of Port-of-Spain were reinstated. But the Commission did recommend that water management affairs fall under the rule of local rather than central government – a victory for local democracy … eventually.

http://blog.nationalarchives.gov.uk/blog/the-trinidad-water-riots-of-1903

WASSERQUELLEN

RAND: Adapting to a Changing Colorado River – Interactive Research Brief

November 5, 2013 … summarizing the Colorado River Basin Study, which evaluated the river system’s resiliency and compared resource management options … released in December 2012, was the first collaborative and systematic evaluation of the vulnerabilities of the Colorado River management system and management strategies to reduce them. RAND was asked to join the effort in January 2012 to help develop an innovative decision analytic approach for the study and to assist in its implementation …

http://www.rand.org/jie/projects/colorado-river-basin/interactive-brief.html

Wasser – Schwerpunkt der Außenpolitik

2013 ist das Internationale Jahr der Wasserkooperation. Diese Website macht verständlich, wie politische Lösungen Wasserknappheit verhindern können … begleitet eine Ausstellung, die das Auswärtige Amt zusammen mit der Deutschen UNESCO-Kommission, der Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde und dem Deutschen Archäologischen Institut präsentiert … Wasser ist ein wichtiges Thema deutscher Außenpolitik. Das deutsche Engagement ist vielfältig und nachdrücklich: Es fördert grenzüberschreitende Wasserkooperationen, Wasser- und Gewässerschutz, internationale Wasserforschung, das Menschenrecht auf Wasser und Sanitärversorgung und den Erhalt von Wasser-Kulturerbestätten. Nachdem die Ausstellung im Herbst im Auswärtigen Amt in Berlin und bei der UNESCO in Paris zu sehen war, wird sie ab Dezember 2013 in der RWTH Aachen gezeigt und ist dort öffentlich zugänglich ….

http://www.wasser-kooperation.de/

New version of UN-Water Analytical Brief on Water Security reflects Member States and stakeholders feedback

7 Nov 2013 By nature an Analytical Brief is a discussion piece that can be revised to integrate new evidence or feedback. On these grounds, UN-Water is releasing a slightly revised version of its Analytical Brief on Water Security and the Global Water Agenda after its publication in March this year [W A T E R I N T A K E  23.03.2013   UN-Water releases a new analytical brief “Water Security and the Global Water Agenda”… J.B.] in order to take into account reactions from stakeholders and Member States …

http://www.unwater.org/downloads/analytical_brief_oct2013_web.pdf

Global Climate Risk Index 2014

November 2013 … The Global Climate Risk Index 2014 analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.). The most recent data available—from 2012 and 1993–2012—were taken into account. The countries affected most in 2012 were Haiti, the Philippines and Pakistan. For the period from 1993 to 2012 Honduras, Myanmar and Haiti rank highest … reconfirms that … less developed countries are generally more affected than industrialised countries … Climate Risk Index may serve as a red flag for already existing vulnerability that may further increase in regions, where extreme events will become more frequent or more severe due to climate change .,.

http://germanwatch.org/de/7659

Grafik S.11

http://germanwatch.org/de/download/8551.pdf

Klima-Risiko-Index: Wo Extremwetter am härtesten zuschlägt … interaktive Grafik:

http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/klima-risiko-index-2014-interaktive-grafik-a-933045.html

Climate Diplomacy + Environment, Conflict and Cooperation

29.08.2013 … adelphi hat zwei neue Publikationen zu den gemeinsamen Aktivitäten mit dem Auswärtigen Amt in der Klimadiplomatie veröffentlicht. Sie illustrieren die Grundidee und Ergebnisse des Engagements und die bisher unternommenen Anstrengungen, um eine adäquate Antwort auf eine der außenpolitischen Schlüsselherausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts zu geben: den fortschreitenden Klimawandel …

Climate Diplomacy – New Approaches for Foreign Policy: www.adelphi.de/files/uploads/andere/pdf/application/pdf/climate_diplomacy_2013_online.pdf

Environment, Conflict and Cooperation: www.adelphi.de/files/uploads/andere/pdf/application/pdf/adelphi_ecc-exhibition_web.pdf

[! Über die Zentrale noch nicht erhältlich, nur über einige DEU Vertretungen, z.B. in Kanada, Südafrika J.B.]

http://www.canada.diplo.de/Vertretung/kanada/en/__pr/climate-diplomacy-presse.html

http://www.southafrica.diplo.de/Vertretung/suedafrika/en/__pr/2__Embassy/2013/3rdQ/09-EN-Climate-Diplomacy.html

SWP: Klimaverhandlungen in Warschau – Hängepartie trotz Countdown für ein neues Abkommen?

November 2013 … 11. bis 22. November 2013 … Vertragsstaaten der VN-Klimarahmenkonvention (UNFCCC) in Warschau … Für die EU und Deutschland wird es abermals darum gehen, die Verhandlungen voranzubringen, obwohl eigene Zusagen zu Klimaschutz und Klimafinanzierung noch ausstehen …

http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/aktuell/2013A64_dge.pdf

… was sonst noch so los war:

EU – ISS: What energy security for the EU

08 November 2013 … Definitions of ‘energy security’ range from narrow issues of physical supply disruption to broader ones involving the economic, environmental, and political consequences of changes to energy markets. The simplest definition, used by the International Energy Agency (IEA), refers to energy security as ‘the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price’. Achieving this security requires efforts to reduce risks to energy systems, both internal and external, and to build resilience in order to manage the risks that remain. Tools to achieve this include: ensuring markets function so that the forces of demand and supply correspond; developing adequate production and transport infrastructure; expanding risk management systems (reserves, emergency planning and alternative supply routes); maintaining a diversified portfolio of energy suppliers; and keeping demand under control (energy efficiency). But energy security considerations must also be balanced against competitiveness and environmental concerns – notably those related to climate change …

http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/Brief_39_Energy_security.pdf

IDSA: Will Turkey be the new hub for gas?

November 6, 2013 Largely unaffected by the stagnation in most of the developed world, the Turkish economy has continued to grow … its demand for energy has increased and is expected to double over the next decade … it relies heavily on imports to meet its domestic demand. Additionally, Turkey positions itself as a gas transit hub – importing from Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran and re-exporting some of it to Europe. More importantly, it provides passage from the gas production sites to the consumers. Today, it holds a privileged location between the substantial gas reserves of the Caspian basin and Russia and the substantial market in Europe … A critical scrutiny of the prospects for Turkey’s emergence as the natural gas hub is in order … The gas infrastructure has been vulnerable to frequent terrorist attacks leading to supply disruptions … Regionally, the Interconnector Turkey-Greece-Italy (ITGI) transportation project … has had positive fallout in Turkey’s relations with Greece … On the other hand, Turkey is entering into troubled waters in its quest for more pipeline options in the region … Beyond the region, Turkey suffers at times and benefits at others from the global scramble for a share in the gas resources. It has been a contested territory for rival pipeline proposals – the most interesting being the South Stream project of Russia and the Nabucco project of the West … Rotterdam is the undisputed leader as the hub for crude oil … the city has acquired the title of “Gateway to Europe”. So, will Turkey be the hub for gas tomorrow like Rotterdam is the hub for oil today? Its ambition to emerge as a major conduit of gas to Europe suffers from an inherent limitation; the future growth in energy demand will be from Asia and not Europe …

http://idsa.in/idsacomments/WillTurkeybethenewhubforgas_gdietl_061113

Royal Marine found guilty of ‚executing‘ Afghan insurgent

8 November 2013 A Royal Marines sergeant faces life imprisonment after being found guilty of the cold-blooded battlefield murder of a seriously wounded Afghan insurgent … The court martial … was told that the three marines, who can be identified only as Marines A, B and C, were part of a patrol tasked to deal with an insurgent hit in a helicopter attack in Helmand in September 2011. After dragging him to the side of a field, Marine A shot him in the chest while he was still clearly alive. B and C were also accused of murder by dint of helping and encouraging A, but were cleared. They insisted they were shocked when A opened fire … Judge Blackett told Marine A: "Marine A, this court has found you guilty of murder. The mandatory sentence prescribed by law is imprisonment for life … The verdict is a huge blow for the British services and historically significant. It is the first time a British serviceman or woman has been found guilty of murder during an overseas operation in modern times. The Royal Marines called it a "truly shocking and appalling aberration." … The case has also been a test for the principle of open justice. The marines were afforded anonymity throughout because of the danger that their lives could be under threat from extremists if their identities were known. A damning video that captured the moment of the murder – taken from a helmet camera worn by Marine B – was not released after the government argued it would be a recruitment gift for terrorists and could lead to "lone wolves" to attack British troops or citizens in revenge … The prosecution alleged the incident amounted to an "execution" of a man who was hors de combat – out of the fight – and should have been treated with respect and dignity … The video was found by chance a year later when one clip was found on another marine’s laptop during an unrelated investigation … After the hearing Brigadier Bill Dunham, the deputy commandant general Royal Marines, said: "Today saw a Royal Marine found guilty of the murder of an unknown male. The naval service respects the verdict, which was reached in full accordance with UK law – to which all service personnel are subject, and in the name of which many thousands of Royal Marines have fought the Taliban in Afghanistan since 2001 The naval service takes seriously its responsibilities to train its sailors and marines in the standards of conduct applicable to combat operations on land, at sea and in the air. It is a matter of profound regret in this isolated incident that one marine failed to apply his training and discharge his responsibilities …"

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/nov/08/royal-marine-guilty-executing-afghan

[… in Großbritannien in allen Medien wichtiges Thema, im deutschsprachigen Raum nur auf dem Niveau von Agenturmeldungen sporadisch vermerkt (Ausnahme spiegel-online). J.B.]

… und dann hatten wir da noch:

131112 Erl taten_statt_worte

131112 Koufogiorgos taifun_haiyan

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