W A T E R I N T A K E 23/2013

Joerg Barandat : W A T E R I N T A K E
23/201323.10.2013 17:45

“ … When I was a major general in Bangladesh’s military, my job was to avoid conflict while planning for the worst-case scenario. And, from the perspective of the military, the consequences of global warming constitute the worst-case scenario … Climate change is the ultimate global challenge and global threat, and the global community must meet it together … Climate change is the greatest global security threat of the twenty-first century, and if we do not tackle it now, the worst-case scenarios will be our reality …” [Volltext project-syndicate siehe unten]
Major General Muniruzzaman (Retd)
CV: http://www.nupi.no/content/download/196052/515513/file/Muniruzzaman.pdf

WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

Diamer Bhasha Dam: Pakistan’s new Achilles heel
October 21, 2013 In mid-August 2013, the Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) of Pakistan refused to share relending and repayments liability of loans with regard to two upcoming hydropower projects … The ECC’s decision has come as a dampener for several hydropower projects in the region seeking foreign assistance. Significant among them is the Diamer Bhasha Dam (DBD), a multibillion dollar project proposed to be constructed on the Indus River in Diamer district of Gilgit Baltistan … Designed primarily to fulfill the energy requirements in Pakistan, the dam was also projected to facilitate irrigation for the agricultural sector, generate employment for locals and act as a silt-trap for the Tarbela dam located further downstream. As per the plans, a huge reservoir was to be built in the Diamer district whereas the two power houses, was to be located in Kohistan in the neighbouring province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). With an expected capacity of 4500 MW, the proposed roller compact concrete (RCC) dam was to be one of the largest in the world … Since its inception, the DBD project has been afflicted by controversies. There are fundamental complications regarding the location of the dam in a disputed region. Moreover, there are other problems too — of unresolved boundary issues between the disputed Gilgit Baltistan and the Pakistani province of KP, which have led to contesting claims over their share in the royalty from the dam. The ecological impact of the project site being situated in a high seismic zone, which is prone to landslides and floods are added concerns. The region has witnessed colossal calamities in the past including the earthquake in 2005, the Attabad landslide in 2010 that created an artificial lake wiping out an entire village, and more recently the Gyari avalanche tragedy in April 2012 … The ADB [Asian Development Bank] has shown interest in financing the project. Response from USAID, ADB and other donor agencies are also encouraging. The GoP has requested FoDP [Friends of Democratic Pakistan] for financing of the project and their participation is also expected … Other financial institutions include the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) … Back in 2008, China was reported to be the lead financer of the project. While China is engaged in several infrastructural activities across the PoK, it is unlikely to invest a huge sum in a single project. After initial hesitation, the US has agreed to provide partial funding … financial arrangements with both countries have not yet materialized. The World Bank put forward the condition that Pakistan needed to obtain and furnish a No Objection Certificate (NOC) from India, as the proposed dam site falls in a region claimed by India … The project is worrisome for India. It is a political setback if a mega dam is constructed with foreign assistance in a region claimed by India. At the same time, the ecological fallout of the project is of considerable concern to adjacent areas in India. Therefore, it is natural for India to raise its objections and convince donor agencies and countries like the US, Japan and Russia to stay away from the project … http://idsa.in/idsacomments/DiamerBhashaDam_psingh_211013

Global Warming and Global Security
… ANM Muniruzzaman … Chairman of the Global Military Advisory Council on Climate Change …
Oct. 17, 2013 On September 27, the 195 member countries of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) … released its Fifth Assessment Report. Even for a military man like me, the latest scientific evidence on global warming makes for a chilling read. The scenarios set forth in the report indicate that if the world continues on its current track, burning more and more fossil fuels and increasing the levels of pollution in our atmosphere year after year, global average temperatures could rise by four degrees Celsius by the end of the century. That amount of warming would cause sea levels to rise, displacing tens of millions of people worldwide. Moreover, it would disrupt weather systems, destroying harvests and threatening populations with droughts, floods, and storms of ever-increasing intensity. It would also place a massive strain on global water resources. When I was a major general in Bangladesh’s military, my job was to avoid conflict while planning for the worst-case scenario. And, from the perspective of the military, the consequences of global warming constitute the worst-case scenario. My country, Bangladesh, is a frontline state in the face of climate challenges. It is ground zero for the effects of climate change and the security implications they present. In Bangladesh, climate change is not a theory, a story, or a concept; it is a way of life. As I write, lives are being lost to rising seas, water shortages, and the resulting diseases. Gradual and large-scale displacement of people is taking place, and every day the threat is increasing. Bangladesh, like India, China, and Pakistan, depends for its water on the glaciers of the Himalayas. Those glaciers are disappearing, and the world’s most populous countries – all with significant military capabilities, including nuclear weapons – will find themselves facing an existential crisis if too little water is available. We know that this will happen, and we know that people do not always make the wisest decisions when faced with deprivation of an essential resource. When I meet with my colleagues at the Global Military Advisory Council on Climate Change – generals and admirals from around the world, all with career-long experience in military planning and operations – I am struck by the similarity of our concerns. All countries of the world are experiencing changes that are destabilizing communities and increasing security concerns. Diseases are spreading, wells are drying up, storms are smashing cities and destroying crops, and rain is either a distant memory or an acute danger. Many of these effects are being felt most intensely in regions – such as South and Central Asia, or West and East Africa – where security is already fragile. Climate change does not respect borders and we can already see the impact of global warming at play in many internal crises. When a river that crosses a border or flows through disputed territory becomes a matter of life and death, or food prices skyrocket because a local crop has failed (or even because a major global producer redirects its exports to its own hungry people), conflict can start and spiral out of control very quickly. Militaries need to plan for these scenarios and work with politicians to ensure that they never arise. In global security circles, we often speak of the “international community.” Climate change is the ultimate global challenge and global threat, and the global community must meet it together. We cannot have our separate attitudes and plans. People are dying now. Food prices are rising now. And soldiers are on streets around the world dealing with the effects of climate change – from natural disasters to social unrest. We cannot risk the local, regional, and global security threats that climate change will generate if politicians, civil-society groups, industry, academia, the military, and all other sectors of society do not act together and act now. World leaders should read what the IPCC has to say and take heed. Climate change is the greatest global security threat of the twenty-first century, and if we do not tackle it now, the worst-case scenarios will be our reality.
http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/on-climate-change-as-a-military-problem-by-muniruzzaman-khan

Water level depleting, Gurgaon looks to set up its own jal board
Oct 15 2013 People born with a silver spoon cannot understand what poverty means … Rapid urbanisation has led to a huge increase in Gurgaon’s water demand, and as a result, the city’s groundwater levels have dropped at an alarming rate of 1.12 m per year. Keeping the city’s growing water- and sewage-related problems, government authorities have suggested establishment of an agency similar to the Delhi Jal Board. Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA), one of the authorities responsible for water supply in New Gurgaon, has been involved with rainwater harvesting projects but concedes that a separate body is required to deal with the issue … Shubhra Puri, founder of Gurgaon First, a citizens‘ group, said: „There is a need for a separate water body in Gurgaon — depletion of groundwater needs to be arrested through stringent measures. There is inadequate coordination among departments of Irrigation and Public Health, HUDA and municipal bodies controlling water supply.“
http://www.indianexpress.com/news/Water-level-depleting–Gurgaon-looks-to-set-up-its-own-jal-board/1182656/

Wasser ist keine Ware, Wasser ist Leben
15.10.2013 Der indische Bürgerrechtler Rajendra Singh ist gegen Privatisierung öffentlichen Gutes … Im Bundesstaat Rajasthan hat er in Modellprojekten gezeigt, wie Menschen auf lokaler Ebene ökologisch und politisch verantwortungsvoll mit Wasser umgehen können. Jetzt will der »Waterman« in ganz Indien für ein Umdenken werben … Rajendra Singh: … In Indien jedoch werden die Menschen zunehmend ihres Rechts auf freien Zugang zu sauberem und sicherem Wasser beraubt. Unternehmen aus aller Welt wollen bei uns mit Wasser Geld verdienen, die Nutzung und Verteilung kontrollieren. Die Regierung fördert das oder schaut tatenlos zu. Dem wollen wir mit der Kampagne entgegensteuern … Es geht um Demokratisierung und Aufklärung … Wir wollen ein Bewusstsein für die Gefahren der Privatisierung schaffen und werben für den Erhalt des Wassers als öffentliches Gut. Gleichzeitig klären wir die Leute über ihre Rechte und Verpflichtungen beim Umgang mit dieser wertvollen Ressource auf … Die Regierung verpachtet an Unternehmen das Recht, Wasser faktisch ohne Beschränkung selbst aus den tiefsten Gesteinsschichten zu fördern. Die natürlichen Speicher werden rücksichtslos ausgebeutet, so dass es in betroffenen Regionen kaum noch Grundwasser gibt. Die Menschen spüren das durch akuten Wassermangel … In den letzten Jahren haben Hunderte Firmen Lizenzen für die Ausbeutung der Wasserressourcen bekommen. Umweltauflagen spielen dabei kaum eine Rolle. Das Grundwasser wird im großen Stil abgepumpt. Hinzu kommt die ökologische Belastung durch die chemische Aufbereitung des Wassers für die Industrie. Aber die Wasserknappheit lässt sich doch nicht nur auf profitorientierte Konzerne schieben. Indiens »Kornkammer« im Nordwesten ist eigentlich zu trocken für den Reisanbau. Trotzdem wird von dort aus ins ganze Land geliefert. Bewässert werden die Felder mit Grundwasser aus großen Tiefen, das dadurch immer weiter absinkt … Der Reis für das Land müsste eigentlich in den regenreichen östlichen Bundesstaaten angebaut werden, doch dort fehlen die Strukturen dafür. Im Nordwesten dagegen ist die Produktivität hoch, aber es gibt zu wenig Wasser. Auch in diesem Bereich wäre die Regierung gefordert … Nach der Unabhängigkeit hat man riesige Staudämme und gewaltige Kanalsysteme gebaut. Aber keine Regierung kam auf die Idee, das Wassermanagement für ein so riesiges Land zu dezentralisieren, es in die Hände der Betroffenen zu legen. Die politisch Verantwortlichen haben an den Bedürfnissen von Mensch und Natur vorbei regiert. Die Folgen sind verheerend … Unternehmen wollen Geld verdienen. Das dürfen sie auch gern im Straßenbau oder bei der Energieversorgung tun. Aber nicht mit Wasser, denn Wasser ist keine Ware, Wasser ist Leben …
http://www.neues-deutschland.de/artikel/835955.wasser-ist-keine-ware-wasser-ist-leben.html

Water Desalination Capacity Climbs on Energy Needs, Data Shows
October 14, 2013 Demand for water to generate power, energy and refining needs sparked such growth in desalination plants that 50 percent more capacity is due online this year than in 2012 … A 30 percent improvement in energy efficiency of the best performing desalination plants contributed to the rise, said Christopher Gasson, publisher of Global Water Intelligence, which today released the DesalData report with the International Desalination Association. “You could see this as the water–energy nexus in action … The energy industry needs water, both in refining and power generation as well as upstream. The water industry also needs energy, and the two seem to be coming together in increased demand for desalination.” … Desalination plants being commissioned this year alone can produce 6 million cubic meters a day — as much fresh water as 28 months of rain in London … Saudi Arabia has the largest online capacity of seawater desalination for its energy and domestic needs at 9.2 million cubic meters a day. Next is the United Arab Emirates at 8.4 million cubic meters and Spain at 3.8 million, according to the data … Markets expected to see the fastest growth in desalination during the next five years, more than doubling capacity, are South Africa, Jordan, Mexico, Libya, Chile, India and China …
http://www.businessweek.com/news/2013-10-14/water-desalination-capacity-climbs-on-energy-needs-data-shows

Water shortage threatens mining
Oktober 13 2013 … mining companies in the Rustenburg platinum belt are facing another crisis — drought … The water affairs department and North West’s provincial government have both warned of a drought in the mineral-rich province. South Africa supplies nearly 60% of the world’s platinum and rhodium and 30% of palladium. The department has warned mining companies, among them Glencore, Anglo American and Lonmin, to restrict water use … suspended its use of potable water from Rand Water between 10pm and 6am until the situation stabilises … a water shortage is a threat to future operations …
http://www.bdlive.co.za/business/mining/2013/10/13/water-shortage-threatens-mining

Über Wasser laufen – Wer von Afrika aus nach Europa will, muss das Mittelmeer passieren.
13.10.13 Ein Münchner Architekt wollte das vor 80 Jahren ändern und beide Kontinente verbinden … könnte man heute fast schon zu Fuß von Afrika nach Europa marschieren oder mit der Bahn fahren, ohne Gefahr jedenfalls, in Seenot zu geraten. Herman Sörgel war in seinem Fach zwar eher unbedeutend, er hat kaum je ein Haus errichtet, war mit seiner Doktorarbeit gescheitert. Aber für seine ganz große Idee fand der Schwabinger Bohemien dann doch zügig eine erkleckliche Anzahl weltbekannter Mitstreiter … Nichts Geringeres schwebte ihm vor, als einen bedeutenden Teil des Mittelmeers trockenzulegen, ein Fünftel seiner Fläche immerhin, und so Europa und Afrika an mehreren Stellen zu einem großen Kontinent zusammenzuschmelzen: Atlantropa sollte er heißen, mit einem großen Binnenmeer zwischen seiner Nord- und Südhälfte. Alexander Gall hat in seinem 1998 erschienenen Buch „Das Atlantropa-Projekt. Die Geschichte einer gescheiterten Vision. Herman Sörgel und die Absenkung des Mittelmeers“ die Details geschildert … Die Meerenge von Gibraltar, die der Damm überbrücken sollte, hat eine Breite von 14 Kilometern … Architekten aus Deutschlands erster Riege erklärten sich bereit, mitzuarbeiten bei seiner Neuaufteilung der Erdteile. Mies van der Rohe, Hans Poelzig, Peter Behrens, Fritz Höger (Chilehaus in Hamburg), Emil Fahrenkamp (Shell-Haus in Berlin) und weitere Größen des Fachs steuerten Ideen und Entwürfe bei. Gewiss, der Staudamm selbst wäre ein Fall für Bauingenieure gewesen, doch damit war es ja nicht getan … Atlantropa machte die Runde, und es schien mehr als eine Schnapsidee zu sein … Manches an den hochfliegenden Plänen scheint auch dieser Tage aktuell. Gewaltige Stromleitungen etwa wollte Sörgel zwischen Europa und Afrika – nein, zwischen Nord- und Süd-Atlantropa – verlegen, ähnlich wie bei jenem so spektakulär angekündigten Projekt unserer Tage, „Desertec“, das Solarenergie in Gigawattmengen aus Afrika zu uns transferieren soll. Um dieses Projekt ist es in letzter Zeit ruhiger geworden, womöglich wird es einst enden wie Atlantropa – in der Kiste für große Weltideen … Projekte der Art Sörgels wären heute undenkbar. Schon die Pläne für die Umleitung der Flüsse Sibiriens, die man in den 50er-Jahren in Moskau hegte, ernteten im Westen nur noch Kopfschütteln. „Geoengineering“ in diesen Dimensionen würde eine Technikfolgenabschätzung voraussetzen, die gewiss nie zu einem genehmigungsfähigen Ende käme. Viele durchaus realistische Warnungen waren auch damals schon zu hören. Das sowieso salzreichere Mittelmeer hätte durch die Verdunstung wohl eine dicke Kruste hinterlassen, die nur unter größten Anstrengungen urbar zu machen gewesen wäre. Die Leerung des gewaltigen Beckens könnte tektonische Verwerfungen auslösen. Schließlich würden die Wassermassen, die man dem Mittelmeer verwehrte, den Meeresspiegel der Ozeane anheben – undenkbar in der heutigen Zeit, da jeder Millimeter beim Meeresspiegelanstieg genau verfolgt wird … http://www.welt.de/print/wams/kultur/article120864940/Ueber-Wasser-laufen.html phoenix-Doku: Atlantropa – Der Traum vom neuen Kontinent …
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RHhplsk2Y1M
1951 Atlantropa Film …
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahw7wOlGpR4

Water in China: Desperate measures
October 10, 2013 Rivers are disappearing in China. Building canals is not the solution … Eight of the nine members of the previous Politburo’s standing committee were engineers and a former president, Hu Jintao, was a water engineer. The country has built as many large dams as the rest of the world put together … The Grand Canal now forms a link in one of the biggest engineering projects the world has ever seen, whose first stage is due to open by the end of this year. It goes by the unlovely name of the South-North Water Diversion Project … If it is ever finished it will move water along 2,000 miles of new canals, some of them across the Himalayan plateau, from the Yangzi in the south to the Yellow River in the north, at a cost of more than $50 billion … China is dangerously short of water. While the south is a lush, lake-filled region, the north–which has half the population and most of the farmland–is more like a desert … The shortage is worsening because China’s water is disappearing. In the 1950s the country had 50,000 rivers with catchment areas of 100 square kilometres or more. Now the number is down to 23,000. China has lost 27,000 rivers, mostly as a result of over-exploitation by farms or factories. Water shortages impose big costs. China is hoping for a shale-gas revolution but does not have enough water for it since most of the gas reserves are in the driest parts of the country … The government is approaching the water problem from the wrong end … would do better to focus on demand, reducing consumption of water in order to make better use of limited supplies. Water is too cheap in most cities, usually costing a tenth of prices in Europe … China is building cities of a million people in the Gobi desert. That makes no sense. The government should stop boosting demand for water in places that have none. China should also fine polluters. According to the land ministry, more than half the groundwater in northern China is too dirty for people to wash in, let alone drink, and some is so poisonous it cannot even be used in the fields … China’s engineers have performed amazing feats in the course of its development. But the water problem is best solved by its economists and environmental regulators.
http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chi-nsc-water-in-china-desperate-measures-20131010,0,2592704.story

The Army Goes Green, but Not to Save the Earth
October 10, 2013 … portable solar systems can reduce fuel consumption. “Why are soldiers still dying in fuel convoys when the military could significantly reduce its fuel at remote locations and at the same time save taxpayer dollars?” … The Army has spent $10 million to equip Special Forces units with SunDial’s systems. It’s part of a $4 billion green campaign the Army launched in 2009, with plans to spend billions more over the next three decades. The mission isn’t about saving the environment. It’s about saving money and lives. “A fuel tanker can be shot at and blown up,” says Richard Kidd, deputy assistant secretary of the Army in charge of energy and sustainability. “The sun’s rays will still be there.” The modern wired battlefield requires about 20 gallons of fuel per soldier per day. Protecting the convoys is one of the most dangerous jobs in war: One in 24 fuel convoys in Iraq and Afghanistan suffered a casualty in 2007, the last year the Army kept such statistics. It estimates that the cost to buy and deliver fuel safely to remote outposts can reach $56 per gallon. The military has made changes at outposts in Afghanistan that it expects to use more widely in future conflicts. On some bases, floodlights are powered by solar panels instead of diesel generators. At others, the Army is using smaller, smarter generators that don’t run all the time, cutting energy use by 30 percent compared with larger systems … Some of the adjustments are small but could have a big impact when used on a larger scale. New tents with hinged doors designed at an Army research center in Massachusetts are replacing some zipped tents, which are easily ripped when soldiers enter with their packs on. That makes it harder to keep tents cool in hot climates. Researchers are also testing showers that curb water use by recycling it for future bathing and laundry. The Army’s long-term goal is energy neutrality – to generate as much energy as it uses worldwide. It’s made the most progress at U.S. bases. A new 4.5-megawatt solar farm at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico supplies 10 percent of the site’s power. Fort Bliss, in Texas, has a 1.4-megawatt solar plant. By 2025 officials expect the Army will draw 25 percent of its power in the U.S. from renewables, up from 5.5 percent now. Taxpayers aren’t paying for the new electricity plants. Energy companies finance their construction and then bill the Army for the power. And the military is locking in long-term contracts with fixed prices … With the war in Afghanistan winding down, SunDial’s Rice is thinking ahead to potential future conflicts in Africa or the Middle East. “If the U.S. Army makes this standard for every brigade,” he says, “it will not only transform the U.S. military, but all militaries around the world will follow.”
http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-10/the-u-dot-s-dot-army-adopts-renewable-energy-as-a-way-to-improve-troop-safety

Wasser ist Blut wert oder: der tödliche Durst
11 Oktober … Mit der Zeit könnte der Durst der Grund für eine Neuaufteilung der Welt werden … Nach der Prognose einer internationalen Expertengruppe wird es in 100 Jahren 1,5 bis 4 Grad Celsius wärmer sein. Dabei reichen schon zwei Grad, damit die Gletscher zu schmelzen beginnen. Für eine Reihe von Ländern, zum Beispiel in Mittelasien, kommt das einer Katastrophe gleich – ihnen droht Dürre, behauptet Alexej Kokorin, Leiter des Programms „Klima und Energiewirtschaft“ des WWF … Die Versuche, neue Talsperren zu errichten, bieten Anlass für internationale Streitigkeiten. So droht Usbekistan dem Nachbarland Tadschikistan ganz offen mit einem Krieg, sollte Duschanbe das Rogun-Wasserkraftwerk am Fluss Wachsch errichten und sich dadurch die Wassermenge flussabwärts verringern. Eine ähnliche Situation ist in Afrika zu beobachten … Die Ägypter sind bereit, ihre Rechte an Wasser mit der Waffe in der Hand zu verteidigen. Übrigens sind auch jene Regionen, in denen mit der Wasserversorgung anscheinend alles in Ordnung ist, nicht gefeit vor „Wasseraggressivität“. Laut UN-Angaben wird in zehn Jahren fast die Hälfte der Erdbevölkerung einen akuten Süßwassermangel verspüren. Dann ist ein Krieg unvermeidbar – erst ein Informationskrieg, und dann wird sich zeigen, wie es weitergeht. Russland mit seinen Süßwasservorräten und dem einzigartigen Baikalsee ist der erste Kandidat für einen Überfall, meint der Politologe Oleg Matwejtschew, Professor an der Wirtschaftshochschule: „Ein Informationskrieg bedeutet, der gesamten Weltgemeinschaft einzuschärfen, dass die Ressourcen allgemeines Gut sind, um damit Russland dazu zu zwingen, allen den ungehinderten Zugang zum Baikalsee und unserem Süßwasser überhaupt zu gewähren. Das passiert schon heute. Schweizerische und französische Juristen sagen, dass alle Ressourcen auf der Erde juristisch gesehen allen Menschen gehören. Aber dann ist völlig unverständlich, warum man zu Millionen stirbt, wenn man diese Ressourcen wie auch die Souveränität in allen Kriegen verteidigt.“ Die Schlacht um die Ressourcen kann nur durch deren vernünftigen Verbrauch vermieden werden. Ihr Einsparen und moderne Technologien sind in der Lage, eine Umweltkatastrophe zu verhindern. Nur dann wird sich das Wasser nicht aus einer Quelle des Lebens in einen Vorwand zum Morden verwandeln.
http://german.ruvr.ru/2013_10_11/Wasser-ist-Blutes-wert-oder-der-todliche-Durst-5119/

Can Robust Bilateral Cooperation on Common Rivers between Bangladesh and India Enhance Multilateral Cooperation on Water Security in South Asia?
3 May 2013 The Himalayan river system, which is made up of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers, has a combined drainage area that covers the countries of China, India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The basin of the Indus river, which originates in the Tibetan plateau, is the lifeline of regions in China, Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. The perception of the subcontinent being an India-centric region does not arise solely from the disparities in resources and power, but also from the geographic reality of all countries in the region sharing a border with India, and some of the most significant rivers passing through its territory. India, thus, stands in a unique position to initiate vigorous multilateral cooperation on water issues in the region. Despite this, the low level of integration, perennial conflicts, mistrust and misinformation that have plagued relations between South Asian countries have hindered regional cooperation on water security … http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09700161.2013.782641#.UYzeOaIhrv0

CASA-1000 Project Moves Forward Despite Security Risks
October 7, 2013 On September 16–17, officials from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan and Afghanistan met in Islamabad to sign a Resolution on Contracting Structure and Commercial Principles in the effort to launch the CASA-1000 trade and energy project in 2014. The parties hope CASA-1000 will help bring electricity from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to Afghanistan and Pakistan already in 2017 … If realized, the project would establish a regional electricity market, contribute to inter-regional development involving Central and South Asia, and promote further cooperation between the two poorly integrated regions of the world. But just like the TAPI pipeline—an ambitious energy initiative seeking to bring natural gas from Turkmenistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India—the CASA-1000 scheme faces security and geopolitical risks that make its implementation unrealistic for many skeptics. Some of these risks stem from water and border disputes in Central Asia, tense relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, as well as friction between Pakistan and Afghanistan—all further affected and complicated by the planned withdrawal of international coalition forces from Afghanistan by the end of 2014 … The World Bank and other institutions have expressed interest in funding the project. Russia is also seeking a major role in the scheme, in part because of its concerns about Washington’s push for inter-regional projects under the US Silk Road Initiative, launched in 2011, which Moscow fears is intended to weaken Russia’s influence in what it considers its near abroad. Moscow therefore actively seeks to retain a major role in the regional geopolitics, especially considering the exit of Uzbekistan from the Russia-led Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) for the second time in 2012 and Tashkent’s resistance to other Moscow-led integration initiatives in Central Asia. However, just as its ties with Uzbekistan worsened, Russia has increased its engagement with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, including in the hydropower sphere. Potential investment by Russia in the CASA-1000 project and its deepening collaboration with Bishkek and Dushanbe provide Moscow with leverage over Central Asian states and enable it to remain a key player in the region … Meanwhile, as a country dependent on Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan for water and aiming to become a major exporter of electricity to Afghanistan, Uzbekistan has resisted efforts of its neighbors to develop their electricity export capacities, citing environmental issues that could result from expanded production of electricity by the upstream countries. Uzbekistan has been accused in the past of going as far as cutting gas supplies and blocking railway transit to signal its displeasure and frustrate the efforts of cash-strapped Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to develop their hydropower sectors …
http://www.jamestown.org/regions/centralasia/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=41457&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=53&cHash=88f207f3d4e1d3e428fa3a177caac350

WASSERQUELLEN

Neuer Blog zum Thema Wasser: http://lebensraumwasser.wordpress.com/ … mal reinschauen!

Pressemitteilung: Klimawandel, Wasser und Sicherheit im Mittelmeerraum
22.10.2013 Das EU-Forschungscluster CLIWASEC präsentiert seine Endergebnisse … Im Mittelmeerraum sind die Anzeichen für einen Klimawandel bereits heute offenkundig. Folgt man den derzeitigen Klimaprojektionen für das 21. Jahrhundert, so werden die Auswirkungen gerade in den Anrainerstaaten in Südeuropa, Nordafrika sowie dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten zu massiven hydrologischen Veränderungen führen. Damit ist die Sicherung der dortigen Wasserressourcen, der Trinkwasserversorgung sowie der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität akut bedroht: Verlängerte Dürreperioden, extreme Überschwemmungen, die Versalzung des küstennahen Grundwassers sowie die zunehmende Degradation fruchtbarer Böden sind nur einige der Gefahren, durch die der Klimawandel in Verbindung mit nicht angepasster Bewirtschaftung in den betroffenen Regionen zu politischen Konflikten und wirtschaftlichen Verteilungskämpfen führen kann. Ausgelöst durch eine deutliche Temperaturzunahme und eine moderate bis starke Abnahme sowie eine saisonale Umverteilung des Niederschlags, werden die Folgen des Klimawandels vor allem in der Wasserwirtschaft, der Landwirtschaft, dem Tourismus und in seinen Wirkungen auf die zivile Sicherheit spürbar. Um die vielfältigen Unsicherheiten und Konsequenzen besser bewerten zu können, hat die EU im Jahr 2010 das Forschungscluster CLIWASEC (Klimawandel, Wasser und Sicherheit) ins Leben gerufen …
http://www.juraforum.de/wissenschaft/presseeinladung-klimawandel-wasser-und-sicherheit-im-mittelmeerraum-456456 Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins … http://www.climb-fp7.eu
http://www.climb-fp7.eu/news/news_details.php?news_id=32

U.S. water systems crumbling despite higher debt, rates -study
Oct 15, 2013 The systems that supply most Americans with drinking water continue to deteriorate, despite hiking rates for users and taking on more taxpayer debt over a decade, according to a new study … The American Water Works Association estimated in 2011 that drinking water systems need $1 trillion to replace more than one million miles of aging pipes underneath the nation’s streets over the next 25 years. Columbia’s study analyzed factors that are driving variability in water rates around the country –
including water source, utility size, population and climate – and their impact on debt and operating expenses … The researchers found that small water systems had the highest operating expenses, and that large utilities are the most likely to cover their costs through rates despite having more debt. They also noted that utilities are coming under stress because of demographic changes – particularly as Americans migrate to the West and South, where water is scarcer, demand is growing, or both. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/15/usa-water-debt-idUSL1N0I41EG20131015 America’s Water: An exploratory analysis of Municipal Water Survey Data …
http://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Bianca-paper_FINAL_10-15-13-1.pdf

UN-Water 10 Years Timeline
… is the United Nations inter-agency coordination mechanism for all freshwater and sanitation related matters … formally established in September 2003 by the United Nations High Level Committee on Programmes, building on a long history of coordination in the UN System … http://www.unwater.org/10years_timeline.html

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
South Sudan: Assessed flood affected population (as of 18 October 2013)
http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/south-sudan-assessed-flood-affected-population-18-october-2013

… was sonst noch so los war:

CSIS The Global Aging Preparedness Index
Oct 11, 2013 The world stands on the threshold of a stunning demographic transformation. Over the next few decades, global aging will affect everything from the shape of the family to the shape of the geopolitical order. Perhaps most fatefully, it could throw into question the ability of societies to provide a decent standard of living for the old without imposing a crushing burden on the young. Which countries are most prepared to meet the challenge? And which countries are least prepared? CSIS’s Global Aging Preparedness Index … provides the only comprehensive quantitative assessment of the progress that countries worldwide are making in preparing for global aging, and especially the old-age dependency dimension of the challenge … http://csis.org/publication/global-aging-preparedness-index-second-edition FüAkBw-intern: 131010 CSIS GlobalAgingPreparednessIndex eingestellt in: M:HSSOL_AHS_01SPS DozentSpezialseminar GlobalisierungELOMAT

Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA)
US-India Defence Technologies for Transfer: Cultural Change
October 15, 2013 … US … considers India an important strategic partner … is putting India amongst the eight countries for whom technology exports are not restricted. Most of these countries comprise of close US allies such as the UK … India has in the past few years entered into several defence contracts with the US. These include purchase of Lockheed Martin LM2500 marine turbines to power warships, C-130J Super Hercules aircraft, C-17 Globemaster-III heavy cargo aircraft, and P-8I Poseidon Long Range Maritime Reconnaissance and Anti Submarine Warfare (LRMR and ASW) aircraft. Negotiations are reportedly ongoing for AH-64 Apache attack helicopters; CH47 Chinook heavy lift helicopters and M-777 light weight howitzers. The shift in Indian defence purchases from the traditional Russian/Soviet dependence has been driven by the need to diversify defence purchases and identifying the best globally available equipment for specific tasks. The domestic industry both in terms of global standards of technology and performance has been unable to meet the military needs, particularly of the army and the air force … While India is not an ally of the US, the current US offer of technology transfer places India at a level of high trust and strategic importance with the US … Co-development projects may also form part of the package similar to the India-Russian Brahmos project. What is important for India at this stage is to examine closely the emerging external situation and prepare domestically to wholly absorb the technology offered. Such an absorption strategy should include participation of India’s Defence Public Sector Unit as well as the identified and capable private sector companies under GoI oversight. Transfers of defence technology from the US to India could result in a win-win situation for both the countries through combining US technology with India’s well acknowledged strengths in information technology. In fact, several European and US aviation companies have R&D centres in India involved in high-end research projects. The fly-by-wire flight control system developed ab initio in India for the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas has shown that India has the wherewithal to develop cutting edge technology in niche areas. http://idsa.in/idsacomments/USIndiaDefenceTechnologiesforTransfer_vkapur_151013

India and Central Asia: Need for a Pro-active Approach
October 14, 2013 … No state has become a failing state. On the contrary, countries like Kazakhstan have made great strides. At the same time, the Central Asian countries [CAR(epublics)]continue to face daunting socio-economic and security problems. The relations among themselves are far from smooth. Issues like water security, borders, environmental degradation and migration have become acute. Religious extremism & fundamentalism pose serious challenge to regional stability … Kazakhstan with its vast mineral resources has done better than the others. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan lag behind the others in socio-economic development. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan remain closed and controlled societies. Uzbekistan sees itself as a leader in Central Asia but it has problems with its neighbours, namely, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan … The Fergana Valley remains a hot spot of fundamentalism. Central Asian republics face serious threat from illegal drug trade emanating from Afghanistan. Instability in Central Asia can spill over into sensitive regions like Xinjiang … Central Asia has been an arena of „great game“. The modern version is being played out even today. Russia, China, US, Turkey, Iran, Europe, EU, Japan, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan have all substantial security and economic interests in the region … Central Asian countries are land locked and have looked for building connectivity to global markets. They have sought to revive the ancient Silk Route. Their connectivity with Russia remains the most dominant feature. In the recent years, new connectivity has been built with China as reflected, for instance, in the Kazakh-China gas pipeline. New infrastructure has been built facilitating Central Asia’s connectivity with rest of the world … China conducts its relations both bilaterally and through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). China’s primary thrust has been to make use of Central Asia’s vast mineral resources for its economic development … Slowly, the Central Asian countries are developing a kind of dependency on China which may not be in their long-term interest. China is following a strategic approach to Central Asia … squarely focusing on trade, energy and infrastructure cooperation … Russia regards CARs near abroad … floated a number of institutions including the CSTO, EURASEC etc. to maintain and further develop its ties with the Central Asian countries … the relationship between CARs and Russia is not smooth … CARs are … looking for diversification … their engagements with China, the US and NATO have grown in the recent years … Several other actors … Iran, Turkey, European Union and even Japan … mineral resources and … markets are important motivations in the policies of these countries … India has traditionally attached great importance to its relations with Central Asia … key constraint India faces is the lack of direct access to Central Asia. The unstable situation in Afghanistan and a highly problematic India-Pakistan relation have deprived India from the benefit of relations with Central Asia. The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline (TAPI) would be a game-changer if it materializes … Iran which provides alternative access to Central Asia, is an important but unspoken factor in India-Central Asia relations … The International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) which would pass through Iran, is still underdeveloped and requires huge investment. India has also been slow in realizing the potential of the strategic Chabahar Port in Iran. India will require making substantial investments in Iran to make the INSTC as well as Chabahar Port to provide short and effective access to Central Asia. This must be top priority in India’s foreign policy … India has come up with a “Connect Central Asia policy” (2012) … implementation … needs to be speeded up … India needs to change its approach to Central Asia and show greater pro-activity … Make efforts to join the SCO as full member. To follow up the points mentioned in Connect Central Asia Policy with adequate resources and implementation mechanisms. To institute and strengthen defence and security dialogue with Central Asian countries … Can a strategic dialogue forum be set up between India and CARs? … http://idsa.in/system/files/PB_IndiaandCentralAsia.pdf

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