W A T E R I N T A K E 23/2013

Joerg Barandat * editorial@waternews.de
Subject: W A T E R I N T A K E 23/2013

>
> “ … When I was a major general in Bangladesh’s military, my job was to > avoid conflict while planning for the worst-case scenario. And, from the > perspective of the military, the consequences of global warming constitute > the worst-case scenario … Climate change is the ultimate global challenge > and global threat, and the global community must meet it together … > Climate > change is the greatest global security threat of the twenty-first century, > and if we do not tackle it now, the worst-case scenarios will be our > reality …” [Volltext project-syndicate siehe unten]
> Major General Muniruzzaman (Retd)
> CV: > http://www.nupi.no/content/download/196052/515513/file/Muniruzzaman.pdf >
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> WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN
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> Diamer Bhasha Dam: Pakistan’s new Achilles heel
> October 21, 2013 In mid-August 2013, the Economic Coordination Committee > (ECC) of Pakistan refused to share relending and repayments liability of > loans with regard to two upcoming hydropower projects … The ECC’s decision > has come as a dampener for several hydropower projects in the region > seeking foreign assistance. Significant among them is the Diamer Bhasha > Dam > (DBD), a multibillion dollar project proposed to be constructed on the > Indus River in Diamer district of Gilgit Baltistan … Designed primarily to > fulfill the energy requirements in Pakistan, the dam was also projected to > facilitate irrigation for the agricultural sector, generate employment for > locals and act as a silt-trap for the Tarbela dam located further > downstream. As per the plans, a huge reservoir was to be built in the > Diamer district whereas the two power houses, was to be located in > Kohistan > in the neighbouring province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). With an expected > capacity of 4500 MW, the proposed roller compact concrete (RCC) dam was to > be one of the largest in the world … Since its inception, the DBD project > has been afflicted by controversies. There are fundamental complications > regarding the location of the dam in a disputed region. Moreover, there > are > other problems too — of unresolved boundary issues between the disputed > Gilgit Baltistan and the Pakistani province of KP, which have led to > contesting claims over their share in the royalty from the dam. The > ecological impact of the project site being situated in a high seismic > zone, which is prone to landslides and floods are added concerns. The > region has witnessed colossal calamities in the past including the > earthquake in 2005, the Attabad landslide in 2010 that created an > artificial lake wiping out an entire village, and more recently the Gyari > avalanche tragedy in April 2012 … The ADB [Asian Development Bank] has > shown interest in financing the project. Response from USAID, ADB and > other > donor agencies are also encouraging. The GoP has requested FoDP [Friends > of > Democratic Pakistan] for financing of the project and their participation > is also expected … Other financial institutions include the Islamic > Development Bank (IDB) and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development > (KFAED) … Back in 2008, China was reported to be the lead financer of the > project. While China is engaged in several infrastructural activities > across the PoK, it is unlikely to invest a huge sum in a single project. > After initial hesitation, the US has agreed to provide partial funding … > financial arrangements with both countries have not yet materialized. The > World Bank put forward the condition that Pakistan needed to obtain and > furnish a No Objection Certificate (NOC) from India, as the proposed dam > site falls in a region claimed by India … The project is worrisome for > India. It is a political setback if a mega dam is constructed with foreign > assistance in a region claimed by India. At the same time, the ecological > fallout of the project is of considerable concern to adjacent areas in > India. Therefore, it is natural for India to raise its objections and > convince donor agencies and countries like the US, Japan and Russia to > stay > away from the project …
> http://idsa.in/idsacomments/DiamerBhashaDam_psingh_211013
>
> Global Warming and Global Security
> … ANM Muniruzzaman … Chairman of the Global Military Advisory Council on > Climate Change.
> Oct. 17, 2013 On September 27, the 195 member countries of the United > Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) … released its > Fifth Assessment Report. Even for a military man like me, the latest > scientific evidence on global warming makes for a chilling read. The > scenarios set forth in the report indicate that if the world continues on > its current track, burning more and more fossil fuels and increasing the > levels of pollution in our atmosphere year after year, global average > temperatures could rise by four degrees Celsius by the end of the century. > That amount of warming would cause sea levels to rise, displacing tens of > millions of people worldwide. Moreover, it would disrupt weather systems, > destroying harvests and threatening populations with droughts, floods, and > storms of ever-increasing intensity. It would also place a massive strain > on global water resources. When I was a major general in Bangladesh’s > military, my job was to avoid conflict while planning for the worst-case > scenario. And, from the perspective of the military, the consequences of > global warming constitute the worst-case scenario. My country, Bangladesh, > is a frontline state in the face of climate challenges. It is ground zero > for the effects of climate change and the security implications they > present. In Bangladesh, climate change is not a theory, a story, or a > concept; it is a way of life. As I write, lives are being lost to rising > seas, water shortages, and the resulting diseases. Gradual and large-scale > displacement of people is taking place, and every day the threat is > increasing. Bangladesh, like India, China, and Pakistan, depends for its > water on the glaciers of the Himalayas. Those glaciers are disappearing, > and the world’s most populous countries – all with significant military > capabilities, including nuclear weapons – will find themselves facing an > existential crisis if too little water is available. We know that this > will > happen, and we know that people do not always make the wisest decisions > when faced with deprivation of an essential resource. When I meet with my > colleagues at the Global Military Advisory Council on Climate Change – > generals and admirals from around the world, all with career-long > experience in military planning and operations – I am struck by the > similarity of our concerns. All countries of the world are experiencing > changes that are destabilizing communities and increasing security > concerns. Diseases are spreading, wells are drying up, storms are smashing > cities and destroying crops, and rain is either a distant memory or an > acute danger. Many of these effects are being felt most intensely in > regions – such as South and Central Asia, or West and East Africa – where > security is already fragile. Climate change does not respect borders and > we > can already see the impact of global warming at play in many internal > crises. When a river that crosses a border or flows through disputed > territory becomes a matter of life and death, or food prices skyrocket > because a local crop has failed (or even because a major global producer > redirects its exports to its own hungry people), conflict can start and > spiral out of control very quickly. Militaries need to plan for these > scenarios and work with politicians to ensure that they never arise. In > global security circles, we often speak of the “international community.” > Climate change is the ultimate global challenge and global threat, and the > global community must meet it together. We cannot have our separate > attitudes and plans. People are dying now. Food prices are rising now. And > soldiers are on streets around the world dealing with the effects of > climate change – from natural disasters to social unrest. We cannot risk > the local, regional, and global security threats that climate change will > generate if politicians, civil-society groups, industry, academia, the > military, and all other sectors of society do not act together and act > now. > World leaders should read what the IPCC has to say and take heed. Climate > change is the greatest global security threat of the twenty-first century, > and if we do not tackle it now, the worst-case scenarios will be our > reality.
> http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/on-climate-change-as-a-military-problem-by-muniruzzaman-khan >
> Water level depleting, Gurgaon looks to set up its own jal board > Oct 15 2013 People born with a silver spoon cannot understand what > poverty means … Rapid urbanisation has led to a huge increase in Gurgaon’s > water demand, and as a result, the city’s groundwater levels have dropped > at an alarming rate of 1.12 m per year. Keeping the city’s growing water- > and sewage-related problems, government authorities have suggested > establishment of an agency similar to the Delhi Jal Board. Haryana Urban > Development Authority (HUDA), one of the authorities responsible for water > supply in New Gurgaon, has been involved with rainwater harvesting > projects > but concedes that a separate body is required to deal with the issue … > Shubhra Puri, founder of Gurgaon First, a citizens‘ group, said: „There is > a need for a separate water body in Gurgaon — depletion of groundwater > needs to be arrested through stringent measures. There is inadequate > coordination among departments of Irrigation and Public Health, HUDA and > municipal bodies controlling water supply.“
> http://www.indianexpress.com/news/Water-level-depleting–Gurgaon-looks-to-set-up-its-own-jal-board/1182656/ >
> Wasser ist keine Ware, Wasser ist Leben
> 15.10.2013 Der indische Bürgerrechtler Rajendra Singh ist gegen > Privatisierung öffentlichen Gutes … Im Bundesstaat Rajasthan hat er in > Modellprojekten gezeigt, wie Menschen auf lokaler Ebene ökologisch und > politisch verantwortungsvoll mit Wasser umgehen können. Jetzt will der > »Waterman« in ganz Indien für ein Umdenken werben … Rajendra Singh: … In > Indien jedoch werden die Menschen zunehmend ihres Rechts auf freien Zugang > zu sauberem und sicherem Wasser beraubt. Unternehmen aus aller Welt wollen > bei uns mit Wasser Geld verdienen, die Nutzung und Verteilung > kontrollieren. Die Regierung fördert das oder schaut tatenlos zu. Dem > wollen wir mit der Kampagne entgegensteuern … Es geht um Demokratisierung > und Aufklärung … Wir wollen ein Bewusstsein für die Gefahren der > Privatisierung schaffen und werben für den Erhalt des Wassers als > öffentliches Gut. Gleichzeitig klären wir die Leute über ihre Rechte und > Verpflichtungen beim Umgang mit dieser wertvollen Ressource auf … Die > Regierung verpachtet an Unternehmen das Recht, Wasser faktisch ohne > Beschränkung selbst aus den tiefsten Gesteinsschichten zu fördern. Die > natürlichen Speicher werden rücksichtslos ausgebeutet, so dass es in > betroffenen Regionen kaum noch Grundwasser gibt. Die Menschen spüren das > durch akuten Wassermangel … In den letzten Jahren haben Hunderte Firmen > Lizenzen für die Ausbeutung der Wasserressourcen bekommen. Umweltauflagen > spielen dabei kaum eine Rolle. Das Grundwasser wird im großen Stil > abgepumpt. Hinzu kommt die ökologische Belastung durch die chemische > Aufbereitung des Wassers für die Industrie. Aber die Wasserknappheit lässt > sich doch nicht nur auf profitorientierte Konzerne schieben. Indiens > »Kornkammer« im Nordwesten ist eigentlich zu trocken für den Reisanbau. > Trotzdem wird von dort aus ins ganze Land geliefert. Bewässert werden die > Felder mit Grundwasser aus großen Tiefen, das dadurch immer weiter > absinkt … Der Reis für das Land müsste eigentlich in den regenreichen > östlichen Bundesstaaten angebaut werden, doch dort fehlen die Strukturen > dafür. Im Nordwesten dagegen ist die Produktivität hoch, aber es gibt zu > wenig Wasser. Auch in diesem Bereich wäre die Regierung gefordert … Nach > der Unabhängigkeit hat man riesige Staudämme und gewaltige Kanalsysteme > gebaut. Aber keine Regierung kam auf die Idee, das Wassermanagement für > ein > so riesiges Land zu dezentralisieren, es in die Hände der Betroffenen zu > legen. Die politisch Verantwortlichen haben an den Bedürfnissen von Mensch > und Natur vorbei regiert. Die Folgen sind verheerend … Unternehmen wollen > Geld verdienen. Das dürfen sie auch gern im Straßenbau oder bei der > Energieversorgung tun. Aber nicht mit Wasser, denn Wasser ist keine Ware, > Wasser ist Leben …
> http://www.neues-deutschland.de/artikel/835955.wasser-ist-keine-ware-wasser-ist-leben.html >
> Water Desalination Capacity Climbs on Energy Needs, Data Shows > October 14, 2013 Demand for water to generate power, energy and > refining > needs sparked such growth in desalination plants that 50 percent more > capacity is due online this year than in 2012 … A 30 percent improvement > in > energy efficiency of the best performing desalination plants contributed > to > the rise, said Christopher Gasson, publisher of Global Water Intelligence, > which today released the DesalData report with the International > Desalination Association. “You could see this as the water–energy nexus in > action … The energy industry needs water, both in refining and power > generation as well as upstream. The water industry also needs energy, and > the two seem to be coming together in increased demand for > desalination.” … > Desalination plants being commissioned this year alone can produce 6 > million cubic meters a day — as much fresh water as 28 months of rain in > London … Saudi Arabia has the largest online capacity of seawater > desalination for its energy and domestic needs at 9.2 million cubic meters > a day. Next is the United Arab Emirates at 8.4 million cubic meters and > Spain at 3.8 million, according to the data … Markets expected to see the > fastest growth in desalination during the next five years, more than > doubling capacity, are South Africa, Jordan, Mexico, Libya, Chile, India > and China …
> http://www.businessweek.com/news/2013-10-14/water-desalination-capacity-climbs-on-energy-needs-data-shows >
> Water shortage threatens mining
> Oktober 13 2013 … mining companies in the Rustenburg platinum belt are > facing another crisis — drought … The water affairs department and North > West’s provincial government have both warned of a drought in the > mineral-rich province. South Africa supplies nearly 60% of the world’s > platinum and rhodium and 30% of palladium. The department has warned > mining > companies, among them Glencore, Anglo American and Lonmin, to restrict > water use … suspended its use of potable water from Rand Water between > 10pm > and 6am until the situation stabilises … a water shortage is a threat to > future operations …
> http://www.bdlive.co.za/business/mining/2013/10/13/water-shortage-threatens-mining >
> Über Wasser laufen – Wer von Afrika aus nach Europa will, muss das > Mittelmeer passieren.
> 13.10.13 Ein Münchner Architekt wollte das vor 80 Jahren ändern und > beide > Kontinente verbinden … könnte man heute fast schon zu Fuß von Afrika nach > Europa marschieren oder mit der Bahn fahren, ohne Gefahr jedenfalls, in > Seenot zu geraten. Herman Sörgel war in seinem Fach zwar eher unbedeutend, > er hat kaum je ein Haus errichtet, war mit seiner Doktorarbeit > gescheitert. > Aber für seine ganz große Idee fand der Schwabinger Bohemien dann doch > zügig eine erkleckliche Anzahl weltbekannter Mitstreiter … Nichts > Geringeres schwebte ihm vor, als einen bedeutenden Teil des Mittelmeers > trockenzulegen, ein Fünftel seiner Fläche immerhin, und so Europa und > Afrika an mehreren Stellen zu einem großen Kontinent zusammenzuschmelzen: > Atlantropa sollte er heißen, mit einem großen Binnenmeer zwischen seiner > Nord- und Südhälfte. Alexander Gall hat in seinem 1998 erschienenen Buch > „Das Atlantropa-Projekt. Die Geschichte einer gescheiterten Vision. Herman > Sörgel und die Absenkung des Mittelmeers“ die Details geschildert … Die > Meerenge von Gibraltar, die der Damm überbrücken sollte, hat eine Breite > von 14 Kilometern … Architekten aus Deutschlands erster Riege erklärten > sich bereit, mitzuarbeiten bei seiner Neuaufteilung der Erdteile. Mies van > der Rohe, Hans Poelzig, Peter Behrens, Fritz Höger (Chilehaus in Hamburg), > Emil Fahrenkamp (Shell-Haus in Berlin) und weitere Größen des Fachs > steuerten Ideen und Entwürfe bei. Gewiss, der Staudamm selbst wäre ein > Fall > für Bauingenieure gewesen, doch damit war es ja nicht getan … Atlantropa > machte die Runde, und es schien mehr als eine Schnapsidee zu sein … > Manches > an den hochfliegenden Plänen scheint auch dieser Tage aktuell. Gewaltige > Stromleitungen etwa wollte Sörgel zwischen Europa und Afrika – nein, > zwischen Nord- und Süd-Atlantropa – verlegen, ähnlich wie bei jenem so > spektakulär angekündigten Projekt unserer Tage, „Desertec“, das > Solarenergie in Gigawattmengen aus Afrika zu uns transferieren soll. Um > dieses Projekt ist es in letzter Zeit ruhiger geworden, womöglich wird es > einst enden wie Atlantropa – in der Kiste für große Weltideen … Projekte > der Art Sörgels wären heute undenkbar. Schon die Pläne für die Umleitung > der Flüsse Sibiriens, die man in den 50er-Jahren in Moskau hegte, ernteten > im Westen nur noch Kopfschütteln. „Geoengineering“ in diesen Dimensionen > würde eine Technikfolgenabschätzung voraussetzen, die gewiss nie zu einem > genehmigungsfähigen Ende käme. Viele durchaus realistische Warnungen waren > auch damals schon zu hören. Das sowieso salzreichere Mittelmeer hätte > durch > die Verdunstung wohl eine dicke Kruste hinterlassen, die nur unter größten > Anstrengungen urbar zu machen gewesen wäre. Die Leerung des gewaltigen > Beckens könnte tektonische Verwerfungen auslösen. Schließlich würden die > Wassermassen, die man dem Mittelmeer verwehrte, den Meeresspiegel der > Ozeane anheben – undenkbar in der heutigen Zeit, da jeder Millimeter beim > Meeresspiegelanstieg genau verfolgt wird …
> http://www.welt.de/print/wams/kultur/article120864940/Ueber-Wasser-laufen.html > phoenix-Doku: Atlantropa – Der Traum vom neuen Kontinent
> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RHhplsk2Y1M
> 1951 Atlantropa Film
> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahw7wOlGpR4
>
> Water in China: Desperate measures
> October 10, 2013 Rivers are disappearing in China. Building canals is > not > the solution … Eight of the nine members of the previous Politburo’s > standing committee were engineers and a former president, Hu Jintao, was a > water engineer. The country has built as many large dams as the rest of > the > world put together … The Grand Canal now forms a link in one of the > biggest > engineering projects the world has ever seen, whose first stage is due to > open by the end of this year. It goes by the unlovely name of the > South-North Water Diversion Project … If it is ever finished it will move > water along 2,000 miles of new canals, some of them across the Himalayan > plateau, from the Yangzi in the south to the Yellow River in the north, at > a cost of more than $50 billion … China is dangerously short of water. > While the south is a lush, lake-filled region, the north–which has half > the population and most of the farmland–is more like a desert … The > shortage is worsening because China’s water is disappearing. In the 1950s > the country had 50,000 rivers with catchment areas of 100 square > kilometres > or more. Now the number is down to 23,000. China has lost 27,000 rivers, > mostly as a result of over-exploitation by farms or factories. Water > shortages impose big costs. China is hoping for a shale-gas revolution but > does not have enough water for it since most of the gas reserves are in > the > driest parts of the country … The government is approaching the water > problem from the wrong end … would do better to focus on demand, reducing > consumption of water in order to make better use of limited supplies. > Water > is too cheap in most cities, usually costing a tenth of prices in Europe … > China is building cities of a million people in the Gobi desert. That > makes > no sense. The government should stop boosting demand for water in places > that have none. China should also fine polluters. According to the land > ministry, more than half the groundwater in northern China is too dirty > for > people to wash in, let alone drink, and some is so poisonous it cannot > even > be used in the fields … China’s engineers have performed amazing feats in > the course of its development. But the water problem is best solved by its > economists and environmental regulators.
> http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chi-nsc-water-in-china-desperate-measures-20131010,0,2592704.story >
> The Army Goes Green, but Not to Save the Earth
> October 10, 2013 … portable solar systems can reduce fuel consumption. > “Why > are soldiers still dying in fuel convoys when the military could > significantly reduce its fuel at remote locations and at the same time > save > taxpayer dollars?” … The Army has spent $10 million to equip Special > Forces > units with SunDial’s systems. It’s part of a $4 billion green campaign the > Army launched in 2009, with plans to spend billions more over the next > three decades. The mission isn’t about saving the environment. It’s about > saving money and lives. “A fuel tanker can be shot at and blown up,” says > Richard Kidd, deputy assistant secretary of the Army in charge of energy > and sustainability. “The sun’s rays will still be there.” The modern wired > battlefield requires about 20 gallons of fuel per soldier per day. > Protecting the convoys is one of the most dangerous jobs in war: One in 24 > fuel convoys in Iraq and Afghanistan suffered a casualty in 2007, the last > year the Army kept such statistics. It estimates that the cost to buy and > deliver fuel safely to remote outposts can reach $56 per gallon. The > military has made changes at outposts in Afghanistan that it expects to > use > more widely in future conflicts. On some bases, floodlights are powered by > solar panels instead of diesel generators. At others, the Army is using > smaller, smarter generators that don’t run all the time, cutting energy > use > by 30 percent compared with larger systems … Some of the adjustments are > small but could have a big impact when used on a larger scale. New tents > with hinged doors designed at an Army research center in Massachusetts are > replacing some zipped tents, which are easily ripped when soldiers enter > with their packs on. That makes it harder to keep tents cool in hot > climates. Researchers are also testing showers that curb water use by > recycling it for future bathing and laundry. The Army’s long-term goal is > energy neutrality – to generate as much energy as it uses worldwide. It’s > made the most progress at U.S. bases. A new 4.5-megawatt solar farm at > White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico supplies 10 percent of the site’s > power. Fort Bliss, in Texas, has a 1.4-megawatt solar plant. By 2025 > officials expect the Army will draw 25 percent of its power in the U.S. > from renewables, up from 5.5 percent now. Taxpayers aren’t paying for the > new electricity plants. Energy companies finance their construction and > then bill the Army for the power. And the military is locking in long-term > contracts with fixed prices … With the war in Afghanistan winding down, > SunDial’s Rice is thinking ahead to potential future conflicts in Africa > or > the Middle East. “If the U.S. Army makes this standard for every brigade,” > he says, “it will not only transform the U.S. military, but all militaries > around the world will follow.”
> http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-10-10/the-u-dot-s-dot-army-adopts-renewable-energy-as-a-way-to-improve-troop-safety >
> Wasser ist Blut wert oder: der tödliche Durst
> 11 Oktober … Mit der Zeit könnte der Durst der Grund für eine > Neuaufteilung > der Welt werden … Nach der Prognose einer internationalen Expertengruppe > wird es in 100 Jahren 1,5 bis 4 Grad Celsius wärmer sein. Dabei reichen > schon zwei Grad, damit die Gletscher zu schmelzen beginnen. Für eine Reihe > von Ländern, zum Beispiel in Mittelasien, kommt das einer Katastrophe > gleich – ihnen droht Dürre, behauptet Alexej Kokorin, Leiter des Programms > „Klima und Energiewirtschaft“ des WWF … Die Versuche, neue Talsperren zu > errichten, bieten Anlass für internationale Streitigkeiten. So droht > Usbekistan dem Nachbarland Tadschikistan ganz offen mit einem Krieg, > sollte > Duschanbe das Rogun-Wasserkraftwerk am Fluss Wachsch errichten und sich > dadurch die Wassermenge flussabwärts verringern. Eine ähnliche Situation > ist in Afrika zu beobachten … Die Ägypter sind bereit, ihre Rechte an > Wasser mit der Waffe in der Hand zu verteidigen. Übrigens sind auch jene > Regionen, in denen mit der Wasserversorgung anscheinend alles in Ordnung > ist, nicht gefeit vor „Wasseraggressivität“. Laut UN-Angaben wird in zehn > Jahren fast die Hälfte der Erdbevölkerung einen akuten Süßwassermangel > verspüren. Dann ist ein Krieg unvermeidbar – erst ein Informationskrieg, > und dann wird sich zeigen, wie es weitergeht. Russland mit seinen > Süßwasservorräten und dem einzigartigen Baikalsee ist der erste Kandidat > für einen Überfall, meint der Politologe Oleg Matwejtschew, Professor an > der Wirtschaftshochschule: „Ein Informationskrieg bedeutet, der gesamten > Weltgemeinschaft einzuschärfen, dass die Ressourcen allgemeines Gut sind, > um damit Russland dazu zu zwingen, allen den ungehinderten Zugang zum > Baikalsee und unserem Süßwasser überhaupt zu gewähren. Das passiert schon > heute. Schweizerische und französische Juristen sagen, dass alle > Ressourcen > auf der Erde juristisch gesehen allen Menschen gehören. Aber dann ist > völlig unverständlich, warum man zu Millionen stirbt, wenn man diese > Ressourcen wie auch die Souveränität in allen Kriegen verteidigt.“ Die > Schlacht um die Ressourcen kann nur durch deren vernünftigen Verbrauch > vermieden werden. Ihr Einsparen und moderne Technologien sind in der Lage, > eine Umweltkatastrophe zu verhindern. Nur dann wird sich das Wasser nicht > aus einer Quelle des Lebens in einen Vorwand zum Morden verwandeln.
> http://german.ruvr.ru/2013_10_11/Wasser-ist-Blutes-wert-oder-der-todliche-Durst-5119/ >
> Can Robust Bilateral Cooperation on Common Rivers between Bangladesh and > India Enhance Multilateral Cooperation on Water Security in South Asia? > 3 May 2013 The Himalayan river system, which is made up of the Ganges, > Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers, has a combined drainage area that covers > the > countries of China, India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The basin of the > Indus river, which originates in the Tibetan plateau, is the lifeline of > regions in China, Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. The perception of the > subcontinent being an India-centric region does not arise solely from the > disparities in resources and power, but also from the geographic reality > of > all countries in the region sharing a border with India, and some of the > most significant rivers passing through its territory. India, thus, stands > in a unique position to initiate vigorous multilateral cooperation on > water > issues in the region. Despite this, the low level of integration, > perennial > conflicts, mistrust and misinformation that have plagued relations between > South Asian countries have hindered regional cooperation on water security > …
> http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09700161.2013.782641#.UYzeOaIhrv0 >
> CASA-1000 Project Moves Forward Despite Security Risks
> October 7, 2013 On September 16–17, officials from Kyrgyzstan, > Tajikistan, Pakistan and Afghanistan met in Islamabad to sign a Resolution > on Contracting Structure and Commercial Principles in the effort to launch > the CASA-1000 trade and energy project in 2014. The parties hope CASA-1000 > will help bring electricity from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to Afghanistan > and Pakistan already in 2017 … If realized, the project would establish a > regional electricity market, contribute to inter-regional development > involving Central and South Asia, and promote further cooperation between > the two poorly integrated regions of the world. But just like the TAPI > pipeline—an ambitious energy initiative seeking to bring natural gas from > Turkmenistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India—the CASA-1000 scheme faces > security and geopolitical risks that make its implementation unrealistic > for many skeptics. Some of these risks stem from water and border disputes > in Central Asia, tense relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, as > well > as friction between Pakistan and Afghanistan—all further affected and > complicated by the planned withdrawal of international coalition forces > from Afghanistan by the end of 2014 … The World Bank and other > institutions > have expressed interest in funding the project. Russia is also seeking a > major role in the scheme, in part because of its concerns about > Washington’s push for inter-regional projects under the US Silk Road > Initiative, launched in 2011, which Moscow fears is intended to weaken > Russia’s influence in what it considers its near abroad. Moscow therefore > actively seeks to retain a major role in the regional geopolitics, > especially considering the exit of Uzbekistan from the Russia-led > Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) for the second time in 2012 > and Tashkent’s resistance to other Moscow-led integration initiatives in > Central Asia. However, just as its ties with Uzbekistan worsened, Russia > has increased its engagement with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, including in > the hydropower sphere. Potential investment by Russia in the CASA-1000 > project and its deepening collaboration with Bishkek and Dushanbe provide > Moscow with leverage over Central Asian states and enable it to remain a > key player in the region … Meanwhile, as a country dependent on Tajikistan > and Kyrgyzstan for water and aiming to become a major exporter of > electricity to Afghanistan, Uzbekistan has resisted efforts of its > neighbors to develop their electricity export capacities, citing > environmental issues that could result from expanded production of > electricity by the upstream countries. Uzbekistan has been accused in the > past of going as far as cutting gas supplies and blocking railway transit > to signal its displeasure and frustrate the efforts of cash-strapped > Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to develop their hydropower sectors …
> http://www.jamestown.org/regions/centralasia/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=41457&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=53&cHash=88f207f3d4e1d3e428fa3a177caac350 >
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> WASSERQUELLEN
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> Neuer Blog zum Thema Wasser: http://lebensraumwasser.wordpress.com/ > … mal reinschauen!
>
> Pressemitteilung: Klimawandel, Wasser und Sicherheit im Mittelmeerraum > 22.10.2013 Das EU-Forschungscluster CLIWASEC präsentiert seine > Endergebnisse … Im Mittelmeerraum sind die Anzeichen für einen Klimawandel > bereits heute offenkundig. Folgt man den derzeitigen Klimaprojektionen für > das 21. Jahrhundert, so werden die Auswirkungen gerade in den > Anrainerstaaten in Südeuropa, Nordafrika sowie dem Nahen und Mittleren > Osten zu massiven hydrologischen Veränderungen führen. Damit ist die > Sicherung der dortigen Wasserressourcen, der Trinkwasserversorgung sowie > der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität akut bedroht: Verlängerte > Dürreperioden, extreme Überschwemmungen, die Versalzung des küstennahen > Grundwassers sowie die zunehmende Degradation fruchtbarer Böden sind nur > einige der Gefahren, durch die der Klimawandel in Verbindung mit nicht > angepasster Bewirtschaftung in den betroffenen Regionen zu politischen > Konflikten und wirtschaftlichen Verteilungskämpfen führen kann. Ausgelöst > durch eine deutliche Temperaturzunahme und eine moderate bis starke > Abnahme > sowie eine saisonale Umverteilung des Niederschlags, werden die Folgen des > Klimawandels vor allem in der Wasserwirtschaft, der Landwirtschaft, dem > Tourismus und in seinen Wirkungen auf die zivile Sicherheit spürbar. Um > die > vielfältigen Unsicherheiten und Konsequenzen besser bewerten zu können, > hat > die EU im Jahr 2010 das Forschungscluster CLIWASEC (Klimawandel, Wasser > und > Sicherheit; ) ins Leben gerufen …
> http://www.juraforum.de/wissenschaft/presseeinladung-klimawandel-wasser-und-sicherheit-im-mittelmeerraum-456456 > Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins > http://www.climb-fp7.eu
> http://www.climb-fp7.eu/news/news_details.php?news_id=32
>
> U.S. water systems crumbling despite higher debt, rates -study > Oct 15, 2013 The systems that supply most Americans with drinking water > continue to deteriorate, despite hiking rates for users and taking on more > taxpayer debt over a decade, according to a new study … The American Water
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