„W AT E R I N T A K E“ part 2

Udo von Massenbach: I’d like to recommend:

Verteidigung am Hindukusch: Ein persönlicher Rückblick von Joachim Sproß

Rezension bezieht sich auf: Verteidigung am Hindukusch: Ein persönlicher Rückblick (Broschiert)
Ein lebendiges Buch – voll Vitalität über für uns unsägliche Zustände in Afghanistan. Die Lektüre ist für uns normalen Leser unbedingt notwendig, da sie uns Afghanistan aus den großen Schlagzeilen herausführt und für uns nachvollziehbar macht….mein Gott, welche Zustände, wie in Deutschland vor 200 Jahren…Es sollte aber auch ein Lehrbuch für die Bundeswehr sein – nicht nur wegen der für den Bundeswehrgebrauch notwendigen Abkürzungen von Dienst- und Verantwortungswegen (sic!), sondern weil ich mich ständig gefragt habe, warum passiert eigentlich angesichts eines Org-tohouwabohous nicht mehr oder warum doch.

Fazit: mehr als lesenswert.

*Nazarbayev, Karimov seek water solution*
Jun 20, ’13 It was not the first time Central Asia’s water disputes have taken a prominent place on the summit agenda of the presidents of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, Nursultan Nazarbayev and Islam Karimov, respectively. But the meeting in Tashkent on June 14-15 attached particular importance to water management, as it became part of the new Strategic Partnership Agreement between the two countries. The long-standing problem with water is evidently considered by both leaders to be one of the biggest security risks to the region, along with terrorism, drug trafficking, separatism and organized crime. The two presidents called for a United Nations review of two major hydropower projects in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan at a time when the World Bank is preparing to finalize its feasibility study for one of them, the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan. Plans by Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to build two dams upstream on Central Asia’s main rivers – the Amu Darya to the south and Syr Darya to the north – are aimed at resolving their energy problems. However, these dams would threaten the water supplies for irrigation downstream in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Both rivers flow into what remains of the Aral Sea, which was devastated by the expansion of irrigation canals during the Soviet period … The Soviet system of exchanging water from the upstream republics for oil and gas from the hydrocarbon-rich lower lands no longer exists, and the Amu Darya and Syr Darya now cross several interstate borders. Consequently, conflicts between the five Central Asian countries are persistent. Uzbekistan’s President Islam Karimov warned during his 2012 visit to Kazakhstan that water problems „could deepen to the extent of causing not just serious confrontation, but even wars“. Tashkent has vehemently opposed the building of Rogun and Kambarata; to discourage their construction, it has interrupted energy supplies to Dushanbe and Bishkek, disrupted transportation routes, and even placed mines on its border with Tajikistan … Karimov stressed that any hydroelectric facilities planned for construction upstream, such as Rogun and Kambarata, should undergo an international and independent expert examination under UN auspices and should be agreed with the downstream countries along the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. … According to experts, China’s development plans for its northern and northwestern regions, if completed, threaten the north of Kazakhstan with drought … China plans to increase water supplies in its northwestern provinces from the current 555 billion cubic meters to 888 billion by 2030, thus reducing water flow to Kazakhstan from the Ili and Irtysh rivers, which supply Lake Balkhash. In December 2012, negotiations with China turned sour after Beijing proposed a water division scheme according to the number of inhabitants living along the river in each country. Astana turned down the proposal and is seeking regional alliances to address the problem …

*The ‘big game’ in Central Asia is long over*
June 27, 2013 … the parliament of Kyrgyzstan voted to reject the treaty regarding the lease of the NATO (essentially U.S.) transit center at Manas airport just outside the country’s capital. This means that the entire center’s infrastructure has to be dismantled by July of next year … Central Asian geopolitics today is an example not of a “Big Game” based on fierce competition among several power centers, but rather an illustration of their multiple interdependencies. On the one hand, Moscow sees the post-Soviet space as a zone of its exclusive interests and is following the principle of preferences in exchange for preferences. The Russian side receives preferences in the military-political and energy spheres, and its partners receive concessions on taxes, credits and immigration issues – a very important subject for all the Central Asian republics … Central Asian states have, over the last two decades, learned to diversify their foreign policy contacts. Even Russia’s key strategic partner in Eurasia – Kazakhstan – has, in recent years, been repeatedly lauded by Washington for its effective cooperation. Today, the option of opening a new NATO transit center in Kazakhstan is being actively discussed by the expert community. In short, one should not draw hasty conclusions about the end of American military presence in Kyrgyzstan. Perhaps Bishkek wants to “raise the bar” in its relations with NATO and the United States …*

*A Deadly Triangle: Afghanistan, Pakistan and India*
06/25/2013 With the U.S. and its allies planning to scale down their military efforts significantly in Afghanistan in 2014, a dangerous neighborhood—filled with nuclear weapons, disputed borders, as well as ethnic and tribal divisions—has the potential to become even more threatening … examines one ominous scenario, which could be disastrous for both the region and the world: the contest between India and Pakistan in Afghanistan becoming even more deadly …