„W A T E R I N T A K E“ by Joerg Barandat

Jörg Barandat * watercourse.de *editorial@waternews.de *

Da Sparen nichts mehr bringt, empfehlen wir Investitionen in Wasser – legen Sie sich schon heute Ihre Wasserbank an: 130705 David Fitzsimmons_ColoradoRiverWater.jpg *
WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

Himalayan blunders
Jul, 2013 The floods in the Himalayas have been ferocious and deadly. Fears are that the final body count could run into several thousands. There is no clear estimate of the number of villages wiped out, property destroyed, roads washed away and hydropower projects damaged in the mountain state of Uttarakhand. The mountains are bleeding and its people have been left battered, bruised and dead … two factors have made the already vulnerable region more hazardous. One, climate change-related extreme weather events; Indian monsoon has become more intense … What really compounded the disaster—made it truly man-made—is the scale of development intervention in the past decade or so. This Himalayan region has seen unchecked construction activity, illegal and legal mining, unscientific road building and, of course, hydropower projects built next to each other … Will we learn how to live with the excesses and shortages of water, particularly in the fragile Himalayan ecosystem? Will we learn that extreme rain conditions will require us to build a new water culture? … stop blaming the people living in the Himalayas for the floods in the Indo-Gangetic plains. Instead, focus on building a management system to live with floods; to harvest the excess water in ponds, tanks and groundwater recharge systems … Learn … to live with the hazards of the Himalayas. The bottom line is that we need to learn to live with nature and not have the temerity to think that we can overcome it … catch rain where it falls. This system was different from how water bureaucracies functioned by centralising water storage and making its distribution through canals and pipelines the responsibility of the irrigation and water agencies. Agarwal argued, against conventional thinking, that this centralised system would not serve India in the future. We needed to rebuild our water systems of the past and in doing so use modern science and technology to improve it … The way ahead is to respect the vulnerability of the region. It cannot be anybody’s contention that the Himalayan region must not see development. The question to consider is how it should develop: by building roads and hydropower projects or local economies based on tourism, which do not work against nature. It is also a fact that changing monsoon pattern will require us to optimise use of every drop and not allow rain to become devastating flood. Only then will the Himalayan tragedy not be repeated. This is our agenda for survival. Let’s learn it fast …
http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/himalayan-blunders

State needs a better water management plan
Jul 3, 2013 Having learnt its lesson from the drought, the state will now spend heavily on strengthening its water resources over the next three years. Chief minister Prithviraj Chavan said … that the water crisis in the state is a serious challenge that needs to addressed and that better water management is now a critical need … Integrated water shed management on a massive scale including construction of cement dams, farm ponds, fodder management at taluka level are some of the initiatives that need to be undertaken to avoid future losses, Chavan said. He added that not just better planning of water but also a stronger political will to implement these schemes is needed. He said that there is still a conflict between the agriculture and irrigation departments in the state, which needs to stop … Chavan also highlighted that the sewage water should also be treated well to utilise it effectively … Chavan said there is a need to have a central authority that could address the problems, issues and conflicts that various states in the country face due to water … To solve such disputes, the central authority could act as a mediator and help in solving the problems for better utilisation of available resources … He also said that there is a need to establish a joint operating board for dams in the state, that would constantly analyse and study when water should be released from dams, measure the water resources in the state, analyse it and draw formulas for management of the available resources … Chavan said that water crisis, agriculture sustainability, reducing industrial imbalance, solutions to increased urbanisation and improving the quality of education are the ‚five primary priority areas‘ on his agenda for development … he said that the weather department must study how to predict cloud bursts to prevent loss of life and overall destruction they can cause … said that the state’s entire sugarcane cultivation must switch to drip irrigation within three years. Chavan warned that although it is not mandatory currently, the state would take strict action against those who do not shift to drip irrigation …
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-07-03/pune/40350305_1_water-resources-sewage-water-cattle-camps

Veolia Water to build Saudi desalination plant
July 2, 2013 French water and waste utility Veolia … got a contract to buy a desanlitaion plant in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, which will bring $402 million to the company over a 10-year period. Marafiq, Saudi Arabia’s leading water and electricity services operator, has contracted Veolia Water to design, build and operate the largest ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis desalination plant in Saudi Arabia … With a capacity of 178,000 m3 per day, this new plant will supply the Sadara petrochemical complex built by Dow Chemical and Saudi Aramco in Jubail Industrial City II and is due to come on stream in June 2015 …
http://www.marketwatch.com/story/veolia-water-to-build-saudi-desalination-plant-2013-07-02

Mangel im Überfluss * In Saudiarabien dreht sich fast alles um Wasser *
29. Juni 2013 Die Entsalzung von Meerwasser ist für die saudiarabische Wasserversorgung unerlässlich. Saudiarabien steht vor der gewaltigen Aufgabe, die Versorgung mit Wasser im Königreich sicherzustellen. Viele Haushalte bekommen nur unregelmässig Wasser geliefert. Viele Saudi gehen zu sorglos mit der knappen Ressource um … Tanklastzüge und Zisternen prägen das Bild der 4,6 Mio. Einwohner zählenden Metropole Riad … Neben den Gebäuden in der Hauptstadt sind überall Wassertanks installiert. So weit das Auge auch von der Aussichtsplattform des obersten Stockwerks im Kingdom Tower, dem höchsten Wolkenkratzer Riads, reicht, sind auf den Dächern fast aller Häuser Wasserbehälter zu sehen. An den Rückseiten der modernsten Hotelgebäude kann jeden Tag beobachtet werden, wie das Personal die Zisternen der Herbergen mit Wasser aus Tankwagen füllt. Ein Versorgungssystem über Leitungen ist in der saudischen Hauptstadt zwar vorhanden, aber Wasser fliesst nur unregelmässig durch die Röhren. Laut Berichten funktionierte diese Art von Wasserversorgung im Jahr 2011 in Riad nur alle zwei bis drei Tage … Die sporadischen Wasserlieferungen haben im Wüstenstaat Saudiarabien – in ihm steigen im Sommer die Temperaturen bis auf 50 Grad – natürlich damit zu tun, dass es kaum Wasser gibt. Bei staatlichen Stellen des Königreichs erklärt man die Herausforderungen: Oberflächenwasser gebe es ständig weniger, und Grundwasser müsse aus immer tieferen Erdschichten ans Tageslicht befördert werden … Daher setze Saudiarabien seit 1970 vermehrt auf die Nutzung von Meerwasser, das mittlerweile in über 30 Anlagen entsalzt wird. Die meisten dieser Einrichtungen befinden sich am Roten Meer; rund ein halbes Dutzend liegt an der Küste zum Persischen Golf. Gemäss Schätzungen können bereits 50% bis 60% des Trinkwasserbedarfs von Saudiarabien mit aufbereitetem Meerwasser gedeckt werden … Ist das Wasser zur Nutzung bereit, muss es über grosse Entfernungen von den Küstengebieten zu den Ballungszentren transportiert werden … Allein für die Stadt Riad pumpt man … das Wasser über drei Zuleitungen aus den rund 470 km entfernten Entsalzungsanlagen. Ein weiteres Trassee sei bereits in Bau, denn neben dem knappen Wasserangebot müsse der saudische Staat eine immer grössere Nachfrage nach Wasser befriedigen. Wissenschafter der King-Saud-Universität schreiben der Landwirtschaft des Königreiches rund 80% bis 85% der Gesamtnachfrage von zirka 20 Mrd. m³ pro Jahr zu. Nur 15% bis 20% des Wasserverbrauchs gingen auf die Industrie und die Bevölkerung zurück. Der Konsum der knappen Ressource in Saudiarabien müsse unbedingt gedrosselt werden … die Agrarwirtschaft ist nicht der einzige Grossverbraucher, bei dem Wasser eingespart werden könnte. Der Experte erklärt, dass laut Schätzungen der jährliche Wasserkonsum der saudischen Bevölkerung mit zirka 1000 m³ Wasser je Einwohner rund dreimal so hoch liege wie in der Schweiz … Zum hohen Pro-Kopf-Verbrauch kommt noch hinzu, dass immer mehr Menschen im Land Wasser konsumieren. So stieg 2012 die Zahl der ausländischen Pilger zu Städten wie Mekka und Medina auf über 4 Mio. Wallfahrer … Mithilfe von Unternehmen aus Belgien und Frankreich habe der Wasserlieferant ein modernes Kontroll- und Steuerungssystem für die Wasserzufuhr der Stadt aufgebaut … Die Haushalte in Jidda können zu bestimmten Zeiten ihre Vorratsbehälter füllen, womit sie wieder für drei bis vier Tage Nutzwasser haben. Noch im Jahr 2011 gab es nur alle neun Tage Wasser über die Leitungen … Die zweite Herausforderung bei der Versorgung ist der Wasserverlust durch die vielen Rostlöcher an Leitungen und durch das häufige Platzen von Rohren … An Rohren und Tanks in den Wohnhäusern trete heutzutage das meiste ungenutzte Wasser aus … Chancen im Wassergeschäft in der arabischen Welt können auch Schweizer Firmen nutzen. Die Exportförderungsorganisation Osec hat eine Reise … in den Nahen Osten organisiert, um Geschäftsmöglichkeiten für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) auszuloten. Schwerpunkte der Erkundungsmission waren Entsalzungsanlagen für Meerwasser, die Förderung von Grundwasser, der Transport zu und die Verteilung in Ballungszentren sowie die Aufbereitung von Abwasser. In Gesprächen mit lokalen Unternehmern und Behörden hat sich gezeigt, dass es oft allein wegen der Grösse von Projekten für Schweizer KMU nicht einfach ist, im arabischen Raum gegebene Chancen zu ergreifen. Auch sind von den KMU angebotene Technologien vielfach den Behörden nicht bekannt, so dass diese nicht als Anforderungen in die Ausschreibungsunterlagen für Infrastrukturprojekte aufgenommen werden können. Umgekehrt tun sich manchmal auch Schweizer Unternehmer mit arabischen Geschäftspartnern schwer …
http://www.nzz.ch/aktuell/wirtschaft/wirtschaftsnachrichten/in-saudiarabien-dreht-sich-fast-alles-um-wasser-1.18107678

*Water Issues Ripple Through Obama Climate Change Speech *
June 27, 2013 … President Obama’s climate change speech on Tuesday from Georgetown University was full of references to climate change impacts on water availability, flooding, and drought. He dealt head on with key issues of changing water cycle intensity, and in particular, with the increasing frequency of hydrologic extremes … President Obama moved quickly to the subject at hand, and also, almost immediately, to water and fire issues: “The 12 warmest years in recorded history have all come in the last 15 years… Droughts and fires and floods, they go back to ancient times. But we also know that in a world that’s warmer than it used to be, all weather events are affected by a warming planet … Much of the President’s talk focused on energy sources, energy policy, and greenhouse gas emissions. While these critical choices will affect our waters through the climate and associated hydrological changes that the President highlighted, they are also intimately linked to water supply. It takes huge amounts of water to produce energy. Roughly 40% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U. S. are used in energy production. Meanwhile, the heating, treatment, and transport of water accounts for over 12% of energy use in the United States … oil sands production requires vast amounts of water – something like a 4 to 1 ratio of water to oil – so this must absolutely be considered in the full environmental cost …
http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/06/27/water-issues-ripple-through-obama-climate-change-speech/
Video: President Obama Speaks on Climate Change …
http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/video/2013/06/25/president-obama-speaks-climate-change
BEZUGSDOKUMENTE:
June 25, 2013 President Obama’s Plan to Fight Climate Change
http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/climate-action-plan
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/president27sclimateactionplan.pdf

*Investors bullish on Saudi water market*
Jun 22 2013 … the Saudi water market continued to present opportunity for both national and international companies … Business Monitor International said in its „Saudi Arabia Water Report Q3 2013″… seen by the completion of the key Jeddah desalination plant, the mounting market pressure means that the pace of development must continue at this rate … Moreover, growth in activity from nationally-owned companies is likely to continue to pick up in Q3 with Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) announcing plans to construct a desalination plant in Rabigh. This will be the largest desalination plant in the world having a capacity of 600,000 cubic meters of water per day. The project is scheduled to begin in Q114, with completion due in 2018 …
http://www.zawya.com/story/Investors_bullish_on_Saudi_water_market-ZAWYA20130622032730/

*Makkah to have strategic water reserves*
Jun 21 2013 … The National Water Company (NWC) is launching the first phase of the strategic water reserves for Makkah this month to cover emergency water shortages … the first phase will have a capacity of 760,000 cubic meters of water … that the second phase of the project will also be for 760,000 cubic meters of water … the NWC has continued its efforts to deal with the water shortages, and that the main pipeline from Shuaibah desalination plant has been repaired. Water supplies will return to normal after five days. Meanwhile, water shortages in the city have continued for the third day running, and Al-Aziziyah water filling station is surging with huge crowds seeking a water tanker. Customers claim that they have to wait more than three hours to obtain a number and then have to wait for their turn to receive a tanker. They said the NWC should have alternative solutions to the water shortages, especially during the present period with a large number of Umrah pilgrims, who consume three times Makkah’s current water supply.
http://www.zawya.com/story/NWC_Makkah_to_have_strategic_water_reserves-ZAWYA20130621051350/

*Nazarbayev, Karimov seek water solution*
Jun 20, ’13 It was not the first time Central Asia’s water disputes have taken a prominent place on the summit agenda of the presidents of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, Nursultan Nazarbayev and Islam Karimov, respectively. But the meeting in Tashkent on June 14-15 attached particular importance to water management, as it became part of the new Strategic Partnership Agreement between the two countries. The long-standing problem with water is evidently considered by both leaders to be one of the biggest security risks to the region, along with terrorism, drug trafficking, separatism and organized crime. The two presidents called for a United Nations review of two major hydropower projects in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan at a time when the World Bank is preparing to finalize its feasibility study for one of them, the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan. Plans by Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to build two dams upstream on Central Asia’s main rivers – the Amu Darya to the south and Syr Darya to the north – are aimed at resolving their energy problems. However, these dams would threaten the water supplies for irrigation downstream in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Both rivers flow into what remains of the Aral Sea, which was devastated by the expansion of irrigation canals during the Soviet period … The Soviet system of exchanging water from the upstream republics for oil and gas from the hydrocarbon-rich lower lands no longer exists, and the Amu Darya and Syr Darya now cross several interstate borders. Consequently, conflicts between the five Central Asian countries are persistent. Uzbekistan’s President Islam Karimov warned during his 2012 visit to Kazakhstan that water problems „could deepen to the extent of causing not just serious confrontation, but even wars“. Tashkent has vehemently opposed the building of Rogun and Kambarata; to discourage their construction, it has interrupted energy supplies to Dushanbe and Bishkek, disrupted transportation routes, and even placed mines on its border with Tajikistan … Karimov stressed that any hydroelectric facilities planned for construction upstream, such as Rogun and Kambarata, should undergo an international and independent expert examination under UN auspices and should be agreed with the downstream countries along the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. … According to experts, China’s development plans for its northern and northwestern regions, if completed, threaten the north of Kazakhstan with drought … China plans to increase water supplies in its northwestern provinces from the current 555 billion cubic meters to 888 billion by 2030, thus reducing water flow to Kazakhstan from the Ili and Irtysh rivers, which supply Lake Balkhash. In December 2012, negotiations with China turned sour after Beijing proposed a water division scheme according to the number of inhabitants living along the river in each country. Astana turned down the proposal and is seeking regional alliances to address the problem …
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/CEN-01-200613.html

*Water shortages in many places make low-water-use landscaping a priority*
Jun. 19, 2013 Smart irrigation is becoming a hot landscaping specialty as groundwater aquifers are increasingly sucked dry. Thirsty lawns, energy production, and expanding „wet“ industries like hydraulic fracture mining and farm irrigation are vying for water resources, leading to tougher watering restrictions and higher prices … Numerous states and some municipalities also are starting to offer tax incentives for installing low-water-use irrigation systems … Water shortages already impact every continent … Depleted water supplies are both a natural and human-made phenomenon … Planet, the national landscape industry association, lists five strategies for smarter watering: Making your soil healthier … Grouping plants with similar water needs together … Choosing the right grasses for lawns … Creating an irrigation plan that includes reclaimed water and low-consumption drip systems … Mulching, which retains moisture, smothers weeds and adds nutrients to the soil …
http://www.brandonsun.com/lifestyles/breaking-news/water-shortages-in-many-places-make-low-water-use-landscaping-a-priority-212130791.html?

*Robust Water-Management Strategies for the California Water Plan Update 2013*
June 13, 2013 California faces significant challenges in ensuring that its water resources successfully meet diverse needs across the state in the coming decades. Increasing needs due to population and economic growth, increasing agricultural irrigation requirements, and growing desires to dedicate more water to the environment will strain a system nearing or exceeding capacity. These challenges are exacerbated by potential declines in available water supply due to natural variability and climatic changes. How these long-term changes will unfold and affect California’s water system is highly uncertain. Addressing the future uncertainty and diversity of needs requires a planning approach that is flexible and can support deliberations for different approaches, rather than a single prescription for how to move forward. The California Department of Water Resources‘ (DWR’s) California Water Plan Update 2013 will describe current water management conditions, evaluate future challenges facing the California water sector, and discuss potential solutions … This report describes a proof-of-concept analysis using Robust Decision Making to evaluate water resource management response packages for California’s Central Valley (the Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and Tulare Lake hydrologic regions) under future uncertainty using models developed within the Water Evaluation And Planning environment … http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR182.html

*Feed the world? The challenges of global food security*
10 June 2013 Food security is a highly complex, multi-faceted global challenge that involves many aspects. Virtually every policy area is connected to food security: from the economics of food price formation to environmental stress, from financial market dynamics to energy production and supply. Despite the complexities of the food system and its current difficulties, policymakers should focus on the core issue of food insecurity: primarily by establishing a resilient and sustainable agricultural system suitable to the needs of small farmers. And the EU, as one of the largest donors of development aid, might consider doing more abroad of what it is doing at home; supporting farmers through spending on agriculture and rural development.
http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/Brief_24.pdf

*WASSERQUELLEN*
UNI Hamburg: WARNSIGNAL KLIMA – Wissenschaftler informieren direkt*
… ca. 130 wissenschaftliche Artikel zu Klima-Meer und Klima-Wasserversorgung + 60 Zusammenfassungen von Artikel zu: Klima-Polarregionen bereits verfügbar.
Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt: Klima-Gesundheitsrisiken ist für 2014 geplant …*
http://www.warnsignal-klima.de/
WARNSIGNAL KLIMA: Genug Wasser für alle?
http://www.warnsignale.uni-hamburg.de/?page_id=572

*Water Diplomacy Network*

*From IWRM back to integrated water resources management*
Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) has emerged as a popular discourse in the water sector over the last several decades. No one disagrees about the impact of and need for integration. Yet, some debate regarding IWRM continues: Is IWRM a value, a principle or a tool? How do we define integration? What do we need (want) to integrate? How do we integrate? What enabling conditions are necessary for integration to be effective? How do we measure impact of integration? These questions draw on different theoretical and philosophical paradigms and continue to polarize the discourse on IWRM. We recognize water problems are complex and multifaceted. Context is important. Water politics and power dynamics are real. There is no single solution for many contemporary and emerging water problems. Effective resolutions to our increasingly complex water problems demand integration of information and wisdom of water from natural and societal systems with the politics of real-world problem solving …

*June 19, 2013 From IWRM back to integrated water resources management*
by Mark Giordano …*
http://blog.waterdiplomacy.org/2013/06/from-iwrm-back-to-integrated-water-resources-management/
*Non-Integrated Water Resources Management*
Integrated Water Resources Management provides a set of reasoned principles that, if followed, would lead us to an improved water future. This promise plus the backing of important international organizations has allowed IWRM ideals to acquire a near monopoly on water management discourse. This is unfortunate because, while the potential benefits of IWRM are large, its implementation comes with its own set of economic, political and time costs, costs which are not always considered in IWRM policy advocacy. Failure to recognize these costs can sometimes result in outcomes counter to the goals of water sector reform. The ubiquity of IWRM in policy discussions means that lower cost and potentially more effective options are sometimes not considered …
http://de.slideshare.net/IWMI_Media/nonintegrated-water-resources-management

*Cease-Fire on IWRM*
Posted on May 10, 2013 by globalwaterpartnership *
One of GWP’s strategic allies, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), posted a mildly critical blog of the integrated approach to water resources management (IWRM) … *
http://globalwaterpartnership.wordpress.com/2013/05/10/cease-fire-on-iwrm/

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