W A T E R I N T A K E

Jörg Barandat, Hamburg

From: waternews_barandat

… Will we live free or in chains? Under governments that uphold our universal rights, or regimes that suppress them? In open societies that respect the sanctity of the individual and our free will, or in closed societies that suffocate the soul? …. June 19, 2013 President Obama at the Brandenburg Gate [Link zur Ausschriftung siehe unten]

Bürgerlicher Ungehorsam und stiller Protest für die Freiheit … herzlich Willkommen Istanbul in der Mitte Europas! http://www.tagesschau.de/ausland/tuerkei-protest118.html

6th International Conference on Water Resources and Environment Research (ICWRER)
„Wasser & Umweltdynamik“
3. – 7. Juni 2013 an der Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (BfG), Koblenz
Deutsches Sekretariat für die Wasserprogramme der UNESCO und WMO
http://www.water-environment.org/frontend/index.php
Conference Programme
http://www.water-environment.org/frontend/file.php?id=4757
… Internationale Konferenz zu Wasser und Ökologie … mehr als 350 Teilnehmer aus fast 50 Staaten … Wassermanagement, Wasserqualität, Sedimente, Niedrigwasser, Durchgängigkeit, Ökologie und ökologisches Potential … Auswirkungen von Klimaänderungen auf Wasserstraßen … Wie sehen die Flüsse und Flusslandschaften in der Zukunft aus? Werden wir auch künftig Wasser so selbstverständlich nutzen können? Wie werden Dürreperioden unser Leben beeinflussen? Wie können aufkommende Wasserkonflikte entschärft werden? …
http://www.bmvbs.de/SharedDocs/DE/Pressemitteilungen/2013/101-ferlemann-konferenz-zu-wasser-und-oekologie.html

WASSERSTANDSMELDUNGEN

Private water tankers in Chennai make hay
June 18, 2013 … Several private water tankers have hiked the price by at least Rs. 500, but paying more does not ensure quick delivery of water. Residents of the city seem to have no option but shelling out increasing sums to meet their water needs. Expenditure on water has begun to significantly eat into their monthly budgets. And, those who supply packaged water and operate private water tankers are making the most of the crisis … The situation is also grave in added areas that are yet to be supplied with piped water. N. Kamala, a resident of Korattur, said the groundwater table has dipped alarmingly in her area. “I pay between Rs. 6 and Rs. 9 for a pot of water. The roads in my area have been dug up and tankers come only once a week,” she said. Private water tanker operators said they had to increase charges as they operated limited trips due to lack of resources …
http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/private-water-tankers-in-chennai-make-hay/article4824122.ece

Wars over water will be everywhere in Africa
June 15, 2013 Anwar Sadat was precise in predicting what would force Egypt to go to war again. Way back in 1979, while signing the Egypt-Israel peace treaty, the former Egyptian president said, „The only matter that would take Egypt to war again is water.“ And water indeed will be for which Egypt will fight its next war. At least three nations in Nile Basin, Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia, are at loggerheads. The bone of contention among them is water of the Nile. Prospect of a war in the region is increasingly becoming threatening vindicating Mark Twain’s prophecy: „… is for drinking; water is for fighting over“ … By 2025 at least 12 more African nations will join the 13 nations of the continent which are already affected by serious water scarcity. Everyone will be fighting everyone to gain access to water and control the resource. The world is apprehensive of the escalating crisis. Many fear that the situation may snowball into a long-drawn war if Ethiopia remains stubborn with its plan to divert Blue Nile … hydropolitics (politics over water) will lead Africa towards further balkanisation. The Nile Basin is seeing record fragmentation of nation-states by secessionist and other rebel movements, some backed by the United States and its Western allies and others backed by Egypt and some powerful players from the Arabian Gulf. Yet, other secessionist groups are backed by regional rivals such as Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, and others … Wars over water may not break in immediately in Africa but a more dangerous game of throwing counterweights or proxy wars have already started to bleed the continent, especially in its northern and central regions. Egypt has been silently extending its support to the insurgents and secessionists in Ethiopia and Somalia in a bid to keep Addis Ababa and its military preoccupied with domestic problems and collapsing neighbour. To support these secessionists is an existential need for Egypt. Unlike the United States and its Western Allies, Cairo is not interested in regime change in Ethiopia but is keen on keeping the country unstable and in creating liberated pockets controlled by secessionists where Egyptian writs will be large. Cairo is keen on not letting Addis Ababa divert Blue Nile. Southern Africa isn’t in any better situation. With water increasingly becoming a catalyst for regional conflicts across the continent perceptible sparks of mounting tension are emitting from Botswana, Namibia and Angola. „The River Cuito which begins in Angola before heading through the Caprivi strip in Namibia and ending in the marshlands of the Okavango Delta in Botswana runs through an area that is no stranger to tensions and conflict between neighbours.“ All of them, Botswana, Namibia and Angola, are in a race to grab more and control the river …
http://www.timesofoman.com/Columns/Article-1166.aspx

Water planning a priority in Austin
June 15, 2013 Water planning a priority … In the 83rd legislative session that closed at the end of May, multiple bills were submitted in support of water-related projects. The 2011 drought, the worst one-year drought on record in Texas, highlighted the importance of long-range water planning at the local, regional and state levels. Most importantly, it brought attention to the need for funding the projects included in the regional 50-year water plans. The 2012 Texas State Water Plan forecasts an increase in water demands of 27 percent and a decrease in water supply of 18 percent during the next 50 years … House Bill 4 … creates the State Water Implementation Fund, which will operate as a self-perpetuating low-interest loan program, with repayments available to support future projects … We, the voters, will get to decide: Are we willing to invest to provide an adequate supply of water for the future?
http://www.galvestondailynews.com/opinion/guest_columns/article_d3e5ed9a-d572-11e2-97f7-0019bb30f31a.html

Around the NationWater Wars: Who Controls The Flow?
June 15, 2013 … Rivers don’t follow political boundaries — they flow through states and over international borders. And there are endless demands for water: for agriculture, drinking, plumbing, manufacturing, to name just a few. And then there’s the ecosystem that depends on water getting downstream. So what are our legal rights when it comes to water? And who decides? There are two doctrines that govern surface water rights in the U.S. — one for the West and one for the East. ‚A Reasonable Right‘ The riparian doctrine covers the East. „[Under] the riparian doctrine, if you live close to the river or to that water body [or] lake, you have reasonable rights to use that water,“ says Venki Uddameri, a professor and the director of water resources at Texas Tech University. The Western U.S. uses the prior appropriation doctrine. „As people started exploring the West and started looking for water for agriculture and mining, there was a need to move water away from the rivers,“ Uddameri tells Jacki Lyden, host of weekends on All Things Considered. People wanted a claim to water but often lived too far away from a river for the riparian doctrine to make any sense. So the prior appropriation doctrine was devised. Uddameri explains: „It allocates rights based on who started using the water first. So if you are first in time, you are first in rights. And historically, it was based on a permitting process where you go and say you asked for the permit first, so you became the first user … „You don’t own the water … Your water right is the right to use it; it’s a right of use“ … In an arid place like the Klamath Basin, there often isn’t enough water available for everyone who has a right to use it. And the person with the oldest water right gets all the water they are entitled to first … Water management may seem like it would be more of a problem in the arid West, but it’s a national issue. „Oil was probably the fluid of last century where there was a lot of turmoil, and I think water is the fluid of this century,“ says Michael Walsh, a major general with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers …
http://www.npr.org/2013/06/15/192034094/rivers-run-through-controversies-over-who-owns-the-water

Water Management Biggest Risk to China Shale Gas
Jun 14, 2013 … .Water management is the biggest challenge to shale gas development in China amid concern that extraction of the fuel will contaminate drinking supplies … China’s government will need to find ways of getting capital and technology into its shale-gas sector without compromising environmental standards … China is the “biggest shale opportunity” outside of the U.S. …
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-06-14/water-management-biggest-risk-to-china-shale-gas-bernstein-says.html

Ägypten und Äthiopien – Blut für Wasser
13.06.2013 · Mursi droht Äthiopien. Weil das Land den Oberlauf des Blauen Nils aufstaut, bangt Ägypten um sein Wasser. Der Kairoer Regierung kommt die Ablenkung gelegen. Doch es gab in Ostafrika schon geringere Anlässe für Krieg … Die ägyptische Politik ist wieder in Aufruhr, aber diesmal nicht wegen Dieselknappheit oder Demonstrationen, sondern wegen Wasser. Der islamistische Präsident drohte zu Wochenbeginn sinngemäß, dass eben Blut fließen werde, wenn der Strom des Nilwassers zu versiegen drohe. Aus Sicht der Regierung in Kairo verletzt der in Äthiopien geplante Ausbau eines Staudamms mit dem Namen „Renaissance“ vitale nationale Interessen … Die geplante Umleitung des Oberlaufs des Blauen Nils lässt Mursi eine chauvinistische Rhetorik benutzen, wie er sie seit seinem Amtsantritt vor einem Jahr kaum je verwendet hat … Nur als Israel im November 2012 Krieg gegen die Hamas im Gazastreifen führte, äußerte sich Mursi noch harscher … In seltener Eintracht kamen Oppositionelle und Verbündete deshalb vergangene Woche auf Einladung Mursis zusammen, um über das geeignete Vorgehen gegen den südlichen Nil-Anrainer zu beraten. Die live im Fernsehen übertragene Zusammenkunft geriet zum diplomatischen Desaster. Der Liberale Ayman Nur forderte offen, Spione und Soldaten nach Äthiopien zu senden sowie Gegner der Regierung in Addis Abeba zu Anschlägen anzustiften. Später ließ Nur wissen, er habe nicht gewusst, dass die Kameras liefen … Kritiker halten ihm vor, mit aggressiven Worten zur Nil-Krise von innenpolitischen Problemen ablenken zu wollen … Das Regime schüre die Krise, um die drohenden Massenproteste am 30. Juni zu verhindern. Dabei hat Ägypten tatsächlich allen Grund, sich um die Wasserversorgung zu sorgen … Der Renaissance-Staudamm ist nur eines von mehreren Großprojekten in Äthiopien. Im Südwesten des Landes entsteht gegenwärtig der Gibe-III-Staudamm, der ähnlich groß dimensioniert ist. Äthiopien will mit diesen Riesenprojekten zum einen die Folgen der wiederkehrenden Dürren lindern. Zum anderen will das Land mit der am schnellsten wachsenden Bevölkerung Afrikas mit den Kraftwerken seine Abhängigkeit von Rohölimporten reduzieren und trotzdem den Grundstein für eine Industrialisierung legen … Der Konflikt um das Nilwasser wird von vielen Fachleuten als der wahrscheinlichste Grund für einen Krieg in Ostafrika in den kommenden 25 Jahren gehalten …
http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/ausland/afrika/aegypten-und-aethiopien-blut-fuer-wasser-12219537.html
siehe auch: June 03, 2013 Egypt Warns Against Loss of Nile Water to Ethiopian Dam …
http://www.voanews.com/content/egypt-warns-against-loss-of-nile-water-to-ethiopian-dam/1674284.html

Streit um Nilwasser: Mursi droht Äthiopiens Dammbauern
13.06.2013 … Äthiopien will den Nil mit einem Mega-Damm aufstauen – und sorgt damit für Empörung in Kairo … Mohammed Kamel Amr … Außenminister … in die äthiopische Hauptstadt Addis Abeba reisen und einen Konflikt um das Wasser des Nils lösen. Der Streit darum, wem es gehört und wer es wie nutzen darf, könnte andernfalls in einem Krieg enden. Ägyptens Präsident Mohammed Mursi hatte Äthiopien Anfang der Woche erstmals indirekt mit einem bewaffneten Konflikt gedroht. „Wir wollen keinen Krieg“, sagte Mursi vor Anhängern seiner Partei in Kairo. „Doch wir können es nicht hinnehmen, dass unsere Sicherheit gefährdet wird.“ Deshalb stünden „alle Optionen offen“, so der Präsident … Der „Große Äthiopische Renaissance-Damm“ soll Elektrizität produzieren, viel Elektrizität … Den gewonnenen Strom will Äthiopien an seine Nachbarländer verkaufen und so die Staatskasse füllen. Verbrauchen, etwa zur Bewässerung, wollen die Äthiopier das Wasser nach eigenen Aussagen nicht: Ist es einmal durch die Turbinen geströmt, soll es ungehindert Richtung Norden fließen … Trotzdem ist Kairo in Aufruhr. Die Empörung hat verschiedene Ursachen: Zum einen ist da Angst um die Lebensgrundlage, die das Nilwasser für das ganze Land darstellt. Ägypten argumentiert, dass aus dem entstehenden Stausee weit mehr Wasser verdunsten würde als aus einem ungehindert fließenden Fluss … Vor allem aber ist die Eskalation ein Manöver, mit dem die unter Druck stehenden Muslimbrüder und ihr Präsident versuchen, von der desolaten innenpolitischen Lage abzulenken … Kairo hat den Streit offenbar angestachelt … soll sich Äthiopien für die Finanzierung seines Damms die Unterstützung chinesischer Banken gesichert haben. Addis Abeba hat ägyptische Forderungen, den Bau zu stoppen, von sich gewiesen. „Nichts wird den Renaissance-Damm stoppen. Keine Drohung wird ihn stoppen“ … Ägypten betreibe „psychologische Kriegsführung“ …
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/streit-um-nilwasser-aegypten-droht-aethiopien-indirekt-mit-krieg-a-905373.html

India Seeks Water Management Lessons From Israel
June 12, 2013– As Indian municipal officials and water engineers search for ways to provide cleaner water to their nation’s 1.2 billion people, they are increasingly turning to Israel, which has solved many of the same problems that India is now experiencing … a delegation of 16 high-ranking Indian officials of the water authorities … arrived in Israel for a seven-day visit. They visited wastewater treatment plants, met with some of Israel’s leading environmentalists and agronomists and listened to explanations of some of the newest technologies that keep this desert country green … Rajeev Jain, an assistant engineer in the water department of Rajasthan …“Israel is an expert at successfully implementing technologies that we aren’t able to implement. So we have come here to understand which technologies they use and how they manage these things” … The visit was jointly arranged by the governments of India and Israel and managed by the Weitz Center for Development Studies and Israel NewTech, the national sustainable water and energy program of Israel’s Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor. Israel has been a global leader in the fields of drip irrigation and desalination, two ventures for which it has contributed groundbreaking technology … While Israel’s primary investments in India remain in the realm of diamonds and information technology, more and more shekels are being invested in Indian water systems. The two countries began working with each other on water technology in the late 1990s. In 2006, Israeli and Indian ministers of agriculture signed a long-term cooperation and training deal … In 2011, India and Israel signed an agreement to foster cooperation on urban water systems, which came after more than a decade of joint research, development and shared investment in the countries’ respective water technologies … Several delegates said they were shocked to learn how expensive water is in Israel and how all citizens, regardless of income or geographic region, must pay uniform tariffs and fees for the clean drinking water that flows into their taps. It would be nearly impossible to adopt a similar model in India … In India, much of the water generated by cities is illegally siphoned off by residents or lost to leaks, and in rural areas, most farmers get their water at no cost …
http://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/06/12/india-seeks-water-management-lessons-from-israel/

Water management and harvesting must be done on war footing
June 11, 2013 … In the workshop researchers, farmers, and people from NGO’s, Agriculture Extension Departments, Education and Research organisations are participating … there is a need of capacity-building programmes to promote water management system and urged the young scientists to come up with innovative solutions to the issues being faced by nation in current scenario … Prof. Dr. Rai Niaz Ahmad, PMAS-AAUR Vice Chancellor, in his address said that in 1950s Pakistan had surplus water over 5,000 M3 which is now about 1,000 M3 and in 2050 it would further be decreased near 500 M3. He stressed that we have to work on war footings to confront this issues. He also recommended that it’s time to increase investments in water reservoirs; improve water management, irrigation and crop cultivation; introduce rainwater harvesting and launch of mass awareness campaigns. He also suggested that we have to focus on efficient irrigation methodologies, like raised bed, furrow systems, drips and sprinklers and to improve the condition of water shed areas by introducing terracing, contouring and many other Soil and Water conservation practices. Dr. Bruzzono Domenico, Incharge Desk of International Developing Cooperation, in his address urged the participants to come forward and play their vital role to save the water and assured full support from the Italian Embassy to cooperate in education & research in areas of mutual interest and to establish mutual scientific, and educational programmes in order to assert and to consolidate relationships between two countries … In the four-day training workshop participants will get knowledge about the climate change in drylands, sustainable irrigation water management, soil management to optimise water storage and improving fertility in semi-arid areas, water quality for irrigation, impact of climate change on Potohar region, irrigation scheduling and crop water requirements, opportunities for olive production in Potohar region Punjab … In Pakistan there is water scarcity for irrigation purpose and after this training extension staff, field researchers would get some new ideas and innovative techniques to harvest water and use for sustainable agriculture purpose to improve the crop production specially focusing on arid and semi arid region of Pakistan.
http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-6-183035-Water-management-and-harvesting-must-be-done-on-war-footing

Scheichs bieten für Wasser sechs Milliarden
07.06.2013 … Ein Konsortium unter Führung des kuwaitischen Staatsfonds bietet umgerechnet gut sechs Milliarden Euro für den britischen Wasser-Versorger Severn Trent. Das Konsortium, zu dem auch ein Fonds britischer Universitäten sowie ein kanadischer Pensionsfonds gehören, unterbreitete der Konzernleitung ein Übernahmeangebot über 22 Pfund je Aktie in bar … Britische Wasser- und Abwasser-Unternehmen ziehen angesichts ihrer stabilen Einnahmen bereits seit langem das Interesse von Grossinvestoren auf sich. Deshalb befinden sich mittlerweile sieben der zehn Wasser-Unternehmen des Landes in der Hand von Privatinvestoren.
http://www.handelszeitung.ch/unternehmen/scheichs-bieten-fuer-wasser-sechs-milliarden

Geowissenschaften : Wasser unter der Wüste
05.06.13 … Unter dem Sand der Sahara lagern immense Mengen von Grundwasser. Zumindest ein Teil dieses Wassers ist weniger „fossil“ als bislang angenommen. Das lassen Untersuchungen französischer und tunesischer Forscher vermuten. Pro Jahr strömen demnach durchschnittlich 1,4 Kubikkilometer neuen Wassers in die Grundwasserleiter im Nordwesten der Sahara … Das System der Grundwasserleiter – das sind meist poröse Sandsteinschichten – der nordwestlichen Sahara erstreckt sich über eine Million Quadratkilometern in Algerien, Tunesien und Libyen. Jüngeren Schätzungen zufolge, birgt es in verschiedenen Tiefen insgesamt fast 1300 Kubikkilometer Wasser. Dieses Reservoir lässt natürliche Oasen erblühen und wird seit den 1960er Jahren durch Brunnenbohrungen angezapft. Dem so ermöglichten Aufschwung in Landwirtschaft und Industrie stehen allerdings Folgen wie Versalzung und Versiegen einzelner Quellen gegenüber. Gonçalvès und Kollegen nutzten Daten des amerikanisch-deutschen Satellitenprojekts „Grace“, um mehr über die Neubildung des Grundwassers zu erfahren. Die beiden Satelliten vermessen laufend das Schwerefeld der Erde und ermöglichen so Rückschlüsse über die Konzentration und Verlagerung größerer Massen – etwa im Zuge des jährlichen Amazonas-Hochwassers oder der Beschleunigung der grönländischen Gletscher. Diese Satellitendaten kombinierten die Forscher mit Schätzungen der Wasserentnahme sowie Messungen des Grundwasserspiegels vor Ort. Insgesamt findet eine unerwartet starke, wenn auch sehr variable Neubildung von Grundwasser statt … Die neuen Daten legten die Basis für eine dauerhaft tragfähige Nutzung des Grundwassers, schreibt das Team. Ein schonender Umgang mit der kostbaren Ressource sei umso dringender geboten, als für die kommenden Jahrzehnte ein beträchtlicher Bevölkerungszuwachs in der Region erwartet werde … http://www.tagesspiegel.de/wissen/geowissenschaften-wasser-unter-der-wueste/8298694.html

U.S. water infrastructure needs $384-billion upgrade
June 4, 2013 The federal government must spend at least $384 billion to improve the nation’s drinking water infrastructure in order to ensure the safe delivery of water to Americans for the next 20 years. That’s the conclusion of a survey conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the fifth time the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey and Assessment was conducted. The survey projects needed upgrades to pipes, treatment plants and water distribution systems. The report, which by law must be submitted to Congress every four years, examined 73,400 water systems. In many cases, drinking water infrastructure was reported to be 50 to 100 years old. Among the most pressing needs: …
http://www.latimes.com/news/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-water-survey-20130604,0,5727068.story

Air quality, water availability worsened in Delhi
June 03, 2013 Air pollution and drinking water availability worsened in the last five years in the national capital with the transport sector, industries and wastage of water adding to the problem, according to a survey … by The Energy Research Institute (TERI) … The survey highlighted that majority of the respondents in Delhi were not aware that government policies exist for climate change, forest conservation, water pollution and air pollution. With Delhi facing acute water shortage, the survey indicated that 94 percent perceived that water is being wasted in the city. The reasons identified for water wastage included excessive consumption (58 percent), leakage during distribution (49 percent), and leakages in taps and faucets in the house (27 percent) …
http://zeenews.india.com/news/eco-news/air-quality-water-availability-worsened-in-delhi_852609.html

Singapore’s water companies aim to quench China’s thirst
03 June, 2013 Water companies in Singapore are attracting big-name investors as they profit from exporting their expertise to China, which plans to spend US$850 billion over the next decade to improve its scarce and polluted water supplies. Singapore is a hub for water technology because of its own concerns about water security. With few domestic freshwater resources of its own, the city-state has been trying to reduce its reliance on imports from neighbouring Malaysia, where politicians have in the past threatened to turn off the taps … Singapore has been experimenting with reservoirs, recycled water known as NEWater, and desalination as it aims to become self-sufficient in water by 2061 … “The root of the whole commitment to grow the water industry lies with the Singapore water story,” said Goh Chee Kiong, executive director of cleantech at Singapore’s Economic Development Board. “Singapore has been very vulnerable when it comes to water for many decades, therefore we view water as a strategic resource and asset.” With the world’s population hovering at around seven billion, investors are betting on soaring demand for clean water not just for people, but also to help fuel industries ranging from semiconductors and pharmaceuticals to petrochemicals and agriculture. “Water treatment companies have not been on the radar for a while, but now investors are increasingly looking at companies that are undervalued or have yet to realise their potential,” said Carey Wong, an analyst at OCBC Investment Research … Many companies have their sights set on China where, despite spending 700 billion yuan (US$114 billion) on water infrastructure over the five years to 2010, much of the water remains undrinkable, a situation that has led to mounting discontent across the country. China’s environment ministry said 43 per cent of the locations it was monitoring in 2011 contained water not fit even for human contact …
http://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/1252476/singapores-water-companies-aim-quench-chinas-thirst

WASSERQUELLEN

Water Alternatives – Viewpoint
Reflecting on the chasm between water punditry and water politics
… When water academia meets real-time water politics, the latter does not necessarily bow deferentially and listen respectfully. When the former attempts to bring what may be thought of as rational reforms, powerful vested interests, their public façade and stated positions notwithstanding, rise in reaction and are able to scuttle such efforts. Since all politics is both local and short-term, entrenched vested interests are often able to distort the public discourse by appealing to ‚development‘, the new theology of our times, even if it is mal-development they are really advocating … It has lessons for academics in general who long for ‚policy relevance‘ for their work (‚enter the kitchen only if you can handle the political heat‘) and for vested interests that have any semblance of social conscience and sense of legacy left in them (‚you can’t have lasting good politics with short-term bad science‘).
http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=241&Itemid=1
Responding to context: Some lessons from experience in the water sector
… focuses on an important lesson arising from long experience in Asia: the importance of adapting interventions in the water sector to their context. Water is pervasive and failure to appreciate how water programmes fit within a broader economic, environmental and social context can incur large costs. Too often we outsiders, not to mention local politicians and bureaucrats, have been driven by our own thinking and interests, imposing approaches and solutions that may be appropriate in wealthier and more manageable situations but which fail to take into account the complexities of the vast regions of Asia and their huge populations, widespread poverty and traditional practices.
The argument is illustrated in two ways. First by a brief review of programmes in five widely differing river basins: the Aral Sea Basin in Central Asia; the Mahaweli Basin in Sri Lanka; the Ponniar Basin in South India; hydro-power development in Nepal and Bhutan; and the massive 3-H (Hai-Huang-Huai) basins of the North China Plain. This review illustrates how basin interventions can have profound implications for the development of whole regions, even countries, and that politicians and water professionals have too readily driven priorities that are insensitive to the real interests of the areas concerned, whether they involve action (as in the Aral Sea, Mahaweli and Ponniar cases) or inaction (as in Nepal) … Irrigation is by far the largest water user and has played a central role in Asia’s agricultural development, yet there has been surprisingly little progress in understanding how the prevailing context and associated incentives impact on farmer and official behaviour. This has, in my view, resulted in misjudgments concerning irrigation potential and returns. The issues are discussed under four headings: water use, crop output, institutional performance and irrigation modernisation …
http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=246&Itemid=1

Water dating back 3 BILLION years may give us clues to the origins of life, but it tastes ‚terribly salty‘
18 June 2013 Groundwater found bubbling up from nearly two miles beneath the surface of Canada may predate the emergence of multicellular life … A joint British and Canadian team discovered the ancient pockets of water, which they say are like ‚trapped time capsules‘ cut off from the surface for as long as three billion years. But Barbara Sherwood Lollar, an Earth sciences professor at the University of Toronto, who is studying the water, has described the water as tasting ‚terrible‘ after feeling compelled to take a sip. The water could be some of the oldest on the planet and may even contain life, the researchers claim, as it contains an abundance of chemicals known to support organisms in the absence of sunlight. More exciting still, the similarity between the rocks that trapped it and those on Mars raises the hope that comparable life sustaining water could be locked deep beneath the surface of the Red Planet …
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2343797/Water-dating-3-BILLION-years-interesting–tastes-terrible-salty-says-leading-scientist.html

WASSERBALL

04.06.2013 … Der Leichtathletik-Club Jena kämpft nach der Überflutung des Ernst-Abbe-Stadions um seine Existenz … im Anhang: Jena_Abbe-Stadion.jpg
oder: http://www.faz.net/polopoly_fs/1.2208950!/image/2535742899.jpg_gen/derivatives/article_aufmacher_gross/2535742899.jpg

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